Environment, Trade, and Investment
- The Legal Structure for Trade, Investment and the Environment
- Free Trade Agreements and the Environment
- Background on Free Trade Agreements and the United States
“[R]elations in the field of trade and economic endeavor should be conducted with a view to raising standards of living...seeking both to protect and preserve the environment and to enhance the means for doing so...”
“Subject to the requirement that such measures are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting party of measures...(b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health...(d) necessary to secure compliance with laws or regulations which are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Agreement,... (g) relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources if such measures are made effective in conjunction with restrictions on domestic production or consumption...”
- United States-Mexico-Canada (USMCA) Agreement
- United States Free Trade Agreements
- U.S.-Jordan Free Trade Agreement
- Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs)
- Office of the U.S. Trade Representative: Environment and Natural Resources
- A Handbook about Trade and the Environment (PDF)(96 pp, 397 K, About PDF): This United Nations Environment Programme publication is a good introduction to the topic of environment and trade.
- A Special Study on Trade and the Environment (PDF)(109 pp, 1.3 M, About PDF) – a WTO publication that addresses three questions: Is economic integration through trade and investment a threat to the environment? Does trade undermine the regulatory efforts of governments to control pollution and resource degradation? Will economic growth driven by trade help us to move towards sustainable use of the world’s environmental resources?
- Glossary of Intellectual Property Terms - a useful list of trade terms compiled by the United States Department of State.