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Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP)

Substitutes in Metals Cleaning

You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.Substitutes are reviewed on the basis of ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, toxicity, flammability, exposure potential. Lists of acceptableHelpacceptableThis designation means that a substitute may be used, without restriction, to replace the relevant ODS within the end-use specified. For example, HCFC-22 is an acceptable substitute for R-502 in industrial process refrigeration. Note that all SNAP determinations apply to the use of a specific product as a substitute for a specific ODS in a specific end-use. and UnacceptableHelpUnacceptableThis designation means that it is illegal to use a product as a substitute for an ODS in a specific end-use. For example, HCFC-141b is an unacceptable substitute for CFC-11 in building chillers. Note that all SNAP determinations apply to the use of a specific product as a substitute for a specific ODS in a specific end-use. substitutes are updated several times each year. The list of acceptable substitutes are shown below.

Note: SNAP-related information published in the Federal Register takes precedence over all information on this page.

             
Substitute ODPHelpODPA number that refers to the amount of ozone depletion caused by a substance. The ODP is the ratio of the impact on ozone of a chemical compared to the impact of a similar mass of CFC-11. Thus, the ODP of CFC-11 is defined to be 1.0. Other CFCs and HCFCs have ODPs that range from 0.01 to 1.0. The halons have ODPs ranging up to 10. Carbon tetrachloride has an ODP of 1.2, and methyl chloroform's ODP is 0.11. HFCs have zero ODP because they do not contain chlorine. A table of all ozone-depleting substances (http://www.epa.gov/ozone/science/ods/index.html) shows their ODPs, GWPs, and CAS numbers. GWPHelpGWPThe index used to translate the level of emissions of various gases into a common measure in order to compare the relative radiative forcing of different gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations. GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emissions of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from the emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a period of time (usually 100 years). Gases involved in complex atmospheric chemical processes have not been assigned GWPs. See lifetime. Flammable SNAP Listing Date Listing Status Further Information
Aqueous cleaners 0 N/A no March 18, 1994 Acceptable EPA is planning to issue effluent guidelines for this industry under the Clean Water Act.
Chlorobromomethane 0.07 to 0.15 N/A no April 28, 1999 Unacceptable Alternatives exist with lower or zero ODP.
Dibromomethane 0.17 N/A no June 13, 1995 Unacceptable Alternatives exist with lower or zero ODP.
HCFC-141b and its blends N/A N/A N/A October 16, 1996 Unacceptable Alternatives exist with lower or zero ODP.
HCFC-225ca 0.025 122 no December 20, 2002 Acceptable EPA recommends observing the manufacturer’s recommended exposure guidelines of 50 ppm for the -ca isomer, 400 ppm for the -cb isomer, and 100 ppm for the commercial mixture of HCFC-225ca/cb; EPA encourages users to consider other alternatives that do not have an ozone depletion potential.
HCFC-225cb 0.033 595 no December 20, 2002 Acceptable EPA recommends observing the manufacturer’s recommended exposure guidelines of 50 ppm for the -ca isomer, 400 ppm for the -cb isomer, and 100 ppm for the commercial mixture of HCFC-225ca/cb; EPA encourages users to consider other alternatives that do not have an ozone depletion potential.
Heptafluorocyclopentane 0 250 no December 18, 2000 Acceptable EPA expects users to adhere to an exposure limit of 123 ppm over an eight-hour time-weighted average, with a ceiling of 500 ppm.
HFC-365mfc 0 794 yes December 18, 2000 Acceptable  
HFC-4310mee 0 1,640 no April 28, 1999;
June 8, 1999
Acceptable Company-set time-weighted average workplace exposure standard of 200 ppm, and a workplace exposure ceiling of 400 ppm.
HFE-7100 (C4F9OCH3) (methoxynonafluorobutane, iso and normal) 0 297 no September 5, 1996;
December 18, 2000
Acceptable  
HFE-7200 (C5F9OCH3) 0 59 no December 6, 1999;
December 18, 2000
Acceptable The Agency expects that any exposures will not exceed any acceptable exposure limits set by any voluntary consensus standards organization, including the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) or the American Industrial Hygiene Association's (AIHA) workplace environmental exposure limits (WEELs).
Methylene chloride 0 8.7 no March 18, 1994 Acceptable OSHA and RCRA standards must be met. EPA issued Maximum Achievable Control Technology requirements under the Clean Air Act for vapor degreasing in November 1994.
Monochlorotoluenes and benzotrifluorides N/A N/A N/A May 22, 1996 Acceptable with Use Conditions: Subject to a 50 ppm workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes and a 100 ppm standard for benzotrifluoride. The workplace standard for monochlorotoluenes is based on an OSHA PEL of 50 ppm for orthochlorotoluene. The workplace standard for benzotrifluoride is based on the company-set acceptable exposure limit.
n-propyl bromide (nPB) 0.0049 1.57 no May 30, 2007 Acceptable CAS Reg. No. is 106-94-5. EPA recommends the use of personal protective equipment, including chemical goggles, flexible laminate protective gloves and chemical-resistant clothing; EPA expects that all users of nPB would comply with any final Permissible Exposure Limit that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration issues in the future under 42 U.S.C. 7610(a).
Perchloroethylene 0.005 N/A no March 18, 1994 Acceptable OSHA and RCRA standards must be met. EPA issued Maximum Achievable Control Technology requirements under the Clean Air Act for vapor degreasing in November 1994.
Perfluorobutyl Iodide (PFBI)  <0.005 <5 no October 4, 2011 Acceptable CAS Reg. No. is 423-39-2; EPA recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 375ppm (8-hour time-weighted average) for PFBI; Observe recommendations in the manufacturer’s MSDS and guidance for using this substitute, particularly with respect to disposal. Prevent the solvent from entering waterways; PFBI is currently defined as a volatile organic compound (VOC) under CAA regulations (see 40 CFR 51.100(s)).
Semi-aqueous cleaners 0 N/A no March 18, 1994 Acceptable EPA is planning to issue effluent guidelines for this industry under the Clean Water Act.
Straight organic solvent cleaning (with terpenes, C6-C20 petroleum hydrocarbons, oxygenated organic solvents such as ketones, esters, ethers, alcohols, etc.) 0 N/A N/A March 18, 1994 Acceptable OSHA standards must be met, if applicable.
Straight organic solvent cleaning with petroleum hydrocarbon C5 0 N/A N/A February 24, 1998 Acceptable  
Supercritical fluids 0 N/A N/A March 18, 1994 Acceptable  
The Mini-Max Cleaner® 0 0 N/A September 28, 2006 Acceptable  
Trans-1,2-dichloroethylene 0 N/A yes August 26, 1994 Acceptable The OSHA set exposure limit is 200 ppm.
Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene (SolsticeTM  1233zd(E)) 0.00024 - 0.00034 4.7 - 7 no May 17, 2013 Acceptable CAS Reg. No. is 102687-65-0; The manufacturer recommends an acceptable exposure limit of 300 ppm over an 8-hour time-weighted average for trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene; Note that this substitute boils at room temperature. Therefore, EPA recommends using this substitute in equipment designed to minimize solvent losses, emissions and worker exposure. Examples of such equipment include containers with connected hoses and valves that allow for direct transfer of the solvent to cleaning equipment without opening of the storage container, and enclosed or low-emission cleaning equipment.  Observe recommendations in the manufacturer’s MSDS and guidance for using this substitute.
Methoxytridecafluoroheptene isomers (MPHE; SionTM) 0 2.5 no July 16, 2015 Acceptable MPHE is a mixture of structural and stereo isomers, which includes trans-5-methoxy-perfluoro-3-heptene and eight isomeric structures. The manufacturer recommends an AEL of 500 ppm (8-hr TWA) for MPHE.
Trichloroethylene 0.00037 N/A yes March 18, 1994 Acceptable OSHA and RCRA standards must be met. EPA issued Maximum Achievable Control Technology requirements under the Clean Air Act for vapor degreasing in November 1994.
Vanishing oils 0 N/A no March 18, 1994 Acceptable Depending on geographic region, may be subject to VOC controls.
Volatile methyl siloxanes 0 N/A yes August 26, 1994 Acceptable Approval is granted for the whole class of compounds.
HFE-7300 (1,1,1,2,2,3,4,5,5,5-decafluoro-3-methoxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)pentane) 0 310 no July 21, 2017 Acceptable The manufacturer recommends an AEL for the workplace for HFE-7300 of 100 ppm (8-hr TWA). This substitute is subject to a Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) section 5(a)(2) Significant New Use Rule (SNUR) (40 CFR 721.10061).
HFO-1336mzz(Z) 0 9 no October 4, 2018 Acceptable