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Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP)

Unacceptable Substitute Refrigerants

EPA reviews substitutes on the basis of environmental and health risks, including factors such as ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, toxicity, flammability, and exposure potential. Lists of acceptable and unacceptable substitutes are updated several times each year. Alternatives are listed as unacceptable where other available, or potentially available, substitutes pose a lower overall risk to human health and the environment.

Unacceptable Substitutes for ODS in Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Substitute (Name Used in the Federal Register) ODS Being Replaced End-uses Reason
All flammable refrigerants, including OZ-12® (Hydrocarbon Blend A), HC-12a® (Hydrocarbon Blend B), and Duracool 12a except HFC-152a and HFO-1234yf in new MVACs CFC-12 Motor vehicle air conditioning, retrofit and new Lack of adequate assessment that characterizes incremental flammability risk
OZ-12® (Hydrocarbon Blend A), HC-12a® (Hydrocarbon Blend B), and Duracool 12a CFC-12 All end-uses other than industrial process refrigeration, retrofit and new Lack of adequate assessment that characterizes incremental flammability risk
R-141b CFC-11 centrifugal chillers, new High ODP; other substitutes with lower overall risk have been identified
R-176
(R-176 contains CFC-12, HCFC-22, and HCFC-142b. It is a different product from RB-276, typically sold under the name "Free Zone.")
CFC-12 All end-uses, retrofit and new Contains CFC-12
R-403B R-502 All end-uses, retrofit and new Contains a perfluorocarbonHelpperfluorocarbonA compound consisting of carbon and fluorine. PFCs have extremely high global warming potentials (GWPs) and very long lifetimes. They do not deplete stratospheric ozone, but EPA is concerned about their impact on global warming. that exhibits extremely high GWPHelpGWPGlobal Warming Potential (GWP) is defined as the cumulative radiative forcing effects of a gas over a specified time horizon resulting from the emission of a unit mass of gas relative to a reference gas. The GWP-weighted emissions of direct greenhouse gases in the U.S. Inventory are presented in terms of equivalent emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), using units of teragrams of carbon dioxide equivalents (Tg CO₂ Eq.). [Conversion: Tg = 10^9 kg = 10^6 metric tons = 1 million metric tons] The molecular weight of carbon is 12, and the molecular weight of oxygen is 16; therefore, the molecular weight of CO₂ is 44 (i.e., 12+[16 x 2]), as compared to 12 for carbon alone. Thus, carbon comprises 12/44ths of carbon dioxide by weight. and very long lifetime
R-405A CFC-12 All end-uses, retrofit and new Contains a perfluorocarbonHelpperfluorocarbonA compound consisting of carbon and fluorine. PFCs have extremely high global warming potentials (GWPs) and very long lifetimes. They do not deplete stratospheric ozone, but EPA is concerned about their impact on global warming. that exhibits extremely high GWPHelpGWPGlobal Warming Potential (GWP) is defined as the cumulative radiative forcing effects of a gas over a specified time horizon resulting from the emission of a unit mass of gas relative to a reference gas. The GWP-weighted emissions of direct greenhouse gases in the U.S. Inventory are presented in terms of equivalent emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), using units of teragrams of carbon dioxide equivalents (Tg CO₂ Eq.). [Conversion: Tg = 10^9 kg = 10^6 metric tons = 1 million metric tons] The molecular weight of carbon is 12, and the molecular weight of oxygen is 16; therefore, the molecular weight of CO₂ is 44 (i.e., 12+[16 x 2]), as compared to 12 for carbon alone. Thus, carbon comprises 12/44ths of carbon dioxide by weight. and very long lifetime
MT-31 all CFCs and HCFCs All end-uses, retrofit and new Toxicity of a constituent
Hexafluropropylene (HFP) and blends containing it all CFCs and HCFCs All end-uses, retrofit and new HFP is toxic
NARM-22 HCFC-22 All end-uses, retrofit and new Contains HCFC-22
Self-Chilling Cans using HFC-134a or HFC-152a CFC-12, HCFC-22, R-502 Household Refrigeration, Transport Refrigeration, Vending Machines, Cold Storage Warehouses and Retail Food Refrigeration; retrofit and new Unacceptably high greenhouse gas emissions from direct release of refrigerant to the atmosphere