Addition of 1-BP (nPB) to the Clean Air Act List of Hazardous Air Pollutants
Note: 1-bromopropane (1-BP) is also known as nPB
Under the Clean Air Act (CAA), EPA is required to evaluate and control emissions of hazardous air pollutants (also known as air toxics). The CAA allows any person to petition EPA to modify the list by adding or deleting a substance. To add a substance, the petition must provide adequate data for EPA to determine that emissions, ambient concentrations, bioaccumulation, or deposition of the substance are known to cause or may reasonably be anticipated to cause adverse effects to human health or the environment.
EPA received petitions requesting 1-BP be added to the CAA list of hazardous air pollutants. The chemical 1-bromopropane (1-BP), also known as n-propyl bromide (nPB), is a solvent used in electronics and metal cleaning, surface coatings, dry cleaning, adhesives, and as an intermediate chemical in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and agricultural products.
In 2015, EPA determined that the petitions were complete. To aid the Agency in its technical review of the petitions, EPA published a Federal Register notice requesting public comment on the complete petitions. EPA conducted a thorough review of the petitions, relevant scientific studies, and the public comments received. Based on the evidence of the carcinogenicity and toxicity of 1-BP, EPA concluded that 1-BP is reasonably anticipated to cause adverse effects to human health. In 2017, EPA issued a draft notice of its rationale for granting petitions to add 1-BP to the list of hazardous air pollutants contained in the CAA.
On June 18, 2020, the final notice granting petitions from HSIA and NYSDEC to add 1-BP to the CAA list of hazardous air pollutants was published in the Federal Register. On June 2, 2021, EPA issued an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking soliciting data and information on 1-BP usage and emission controls and associated costs.
On December 22, 2021, EPA issued a final rule to add 1-BP to the list of hazardous air pollutants under CAA section 112. This final rule was published in the Federal Register on January 5, 2022, adding 1-BP to the HAP list as of February 4, 2022.
Petition Review History
6/6/2017 - Notice: Extension of Comment Period
3/6/2017 - Notice: Extension of Comment Period
- 1-BP ANPRN webinar slides (pdf)
- Webinar: Feedback on the 1-BP ANPRM (pdf)
- Fact Sheet: Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (pdf)
- Fact Sheet - Final Notice: Granting Petitions to List 1-bromopropane (1-BP) as an Air Toxic (pdf)
- Fact Sheet - Granting Petitions to Add nPB to the list of Hazardous Air Pollutants (pdf)