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Natural Gas STAR Program

Recommended Technologies to Reduce Methane Emissions

Review our Lessons Learned Studies and Partner Reported Opportunities (PRO) Fact Sheets to see how the U.S. EPA’s voluntary oil and gas methane program partners have implemented technologies and practices to cut methane emissions, reduce strategic and operational risk, and demonstrate their commitment to the environment.


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Emission Sources
Capital Cost
Estimated Payback
Industry Segments
Emission Source Document Title Capital Cost Estimated Payback Applicable Industry Segments
Compressors/Engines Wet Seal Degassing Recovery System for Centrifugal Compressors, PRO Fact Sheet $33,000 (one compressor); $90,000 (four compressors) 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Compressors/Engines Replace Gas Starters with Air or Nitrogen, PRO Fact Sheet #101 < $1,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Compressors/Engines Reduce Natural Gas Venting with Fewer Compressor Engine Startups and Improved Engine Ignition, PRO Fact Sheet #102 < $1,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Compressors/Engines Reducing Methane Emissions from Compressor Rod Packing Systems, Lessons Learned < $1,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Compressors/Engines Test and Repair Pressure Safety Valves, PRO Fact Sheet #602 < $1,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Compressors/Engines Reducing Emissions When Taking Compressors Off-Line, Lessons Learned $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Compressors/Engines Eliminate Unnecessary Equipment and/or Systems, PRO Fact Sheet #504 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Compressors/Engines Install Automated Air/Fuel Ratio Controls, PRO Fact Sheet #104 > $50,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Compressors/Engines Install Electric Motor Starters, PRO Fact Sheet #105 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Compressors/Engines Inject Blowdown Gas into Low Pressure Mains or Fuel Gas System, PRO Fact Sheet #401 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Transmission

Distribution

Compressors/Engines Replace Compressor Cylinder Unloaders, PRO Fact Sheet #106 $10,000-$50,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Compressors/Engines Install Electric Compressors, PRO Fact Sheet #103 > $50,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Compressors/Engines Replacing Wet Seals with Dry Seals in Centrifugal Compressors, Lessons Learned > $50,000 1-3 years

Production

Transmission

Dehydrators Reroute Glycol Skimmer Gas, PRO Fact Sheet #201 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Dehydrators Pipe Glycol Dehydrator to Vapor Recovery Unit, PRO Fact Sheet #203 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Dehydrators Replace Glycol Dehydration Units with Methanol Injection, PRO Fact Sheet #205 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Dehydrators Portable Desiccant Dehydrators, PRO Fact Sheet #207 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year Production
Dehydrators Eliminate Unnecessary Equipment and/or Systems, PRO Fact Sheet #504 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Dehydrators Zero Emissions Dehydrators, PRO Fact Sheet #206 $10,000-$50,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Dehydrators Optimize Glycol Circulation and Install Flash Tank Separators in Glycol Dehydrators, Lessons Learned $10,000-$50,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Dehydrators Convert Natural Gas-Driven Chemical Pumps, PRO Fact Sheet #202 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Dehydrators Convert Pneumatics to Mechanical Controls, PRO Fact Sheet #301 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Dehydrators Replacing Gas-Assisted Glycol Pumps with Electric Pumps, Lessons Learned $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Dehydrators Replacing Glycol Dehydrators with Desiccant Dehydrators, Lessons Learned $10,000-$50,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Equipment Leaks Conduct Directed Inspection and Maintenance at Remote Sites, PRO Fact Sheet #901 < $1,000 0-1 year

Transmission

Distribution

Equipment Leaks Directed Inspection and Maintenance at Gate Stations and Surface Facilities, Lessons Learned $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Transmission

Distribution

Equipment Leaks Directed Inspection and Maintenance at Compressor Stations, Lessons Learned $10,000-$50,000 0-1 year

Transmission

Distribution

Equipment Leaks Directed Inspection and Maintenance at Gas Processing Plants and Booster Stations, Lessons Learned $10,000-$50,000 1-3 years Gathering and Processing
Equipment Leaks Increase Walking Survey from a 5- to 3- Year Basis, PRO Fact Sheet #902 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Transmission

Distribution

Pipelines Test and Repair Pressure Safety Valves, PRO Fact Sheet #602 < $1,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Pipelines Insert Gas Main Flexible Liners, PRO Fact Sheet #402 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year Distribution
Pipelines Composite Wrap for Non-Leaking Pipeline Defects, Lessons Learned $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Transmission

Distribution

Pipelines Perform Valve Leak Repair During Pipeline Replacement, PRO Fact Sheet #601 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Transmission

Distribution

Pipelines Using Hot Taps for In Service Pipeline Connections, Lessons Learned $10,000-$50,000 0-1 year

Transmission

Distribution

Pipelines Recover Gas from Pipeline Pigging Operations, PRO Fact Sheet #505 $10,000-$50,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Pipelines Using Pipeline Pump-Down Techniques to Lower Gas Line Pressure Before Maintenance, Lessons Learned > $50,000 0-1 year

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Pipelines Use Inert Gases and Pigs to Perform Pipeline Purges, PRO Fact Sheet #403 $0 1-3 years

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Other Convert Natural Gas-Driven Chemical Pumps, PRO Fact Sheet #202 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Pipelines Inject Blowdown Gas into Low Pressure Mains or Fuel Gas System, PRO Fact Sheet #401 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Transmission

Distribution

Pipelines Inspect Flowlines Annually, PRO Fact Sheet #404 < $1,000 3-10 years Production
Pneumatics/ Controls Convert Gas Pneumatic Controls to Instrument Air, Lessons Learned > $50,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Pneumatics/ Controls Options for Reducing Methane Emissions From Pneumatic Devices in the Natural Gas Industry, Lessons Learned < $1,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Pneumatics/ Controls Convert Pneumatics to Mechanical Controls, PRO Fact Sheet #301 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Pneumatics/ Controls Convert Natural Gas-Driven Chemical Pumps, PRO Fact Sheet #202 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Pneumatics/ Controls Replacing Gas-Assisted Glycol Pumps with Electric Pumps, Lessons Learned $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Tanks Convert Water Tank Blanket from Natural Gas to Produced CO2 Gas, PRO Fact Sheet #503 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year Production
Tanks Eliminate Unnecessary Equipment and/or Systems, PRO Fact Sheet #504 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Tanks Recover Gas from Pipeline Pigging Operations, PRO Fact Sheet #505 $10,000-$50,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Tanks Recover Gas During Condensate Loading, PRO Fact Sheet #502 < $1,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Tanks Install Pressurized Storage of Condensate, PRO Fact Sheet #501 $10,000-$50,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Tanks Installing Vapor Recovery Units on Storage Tanks, Lessons Learned > $50,000 1-3 years Production
Valves Install BASO® Valves, PRO Fact Sheet #604 < $1,000 0-1 year Production
Valves Test and Repair Pressure Safety Valves, PRO Fact Sheet #602 < $1,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Valves Perform Valve Leak Repair During Pipeline Replacement, PRO Fact Sheet #601 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Transmission

Distribution

Valves Replace Burst Plates with Secondary Relief Valves, PRO Fact Sheet #605 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Valves Install Excess Flow Valves, PRO Fact Sheet #603 $1,000-$10,000 3-10 years Distribution
Wells Test and Repair Pressure Safety Valves, PRO Fact Sheet #602 < $1,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Wells Connect Casing to Vapor Recovery Unit, PRO Fact Sheet #701 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year Production
Wells Installing Plunger Lift Systems in Gas Wells, Lessons Learned $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year Production
Wells Install Compressors to Capture Casinghead Gas, PRO Fact Sheet #702 $10,000-$50,000 0-1 year Production
Wells Reduced Emission Completions for Hydraulically Fractured Natural Gas Wells, Lessons Learned > $50,000 0-1 year Production
Wells Convert Natural Gas-Driven Chemical Pumps, PRO Fact Sheet #202 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Wells Convert Pneumatics to Mechanical Controls, PRO Fact Sheet #301 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Wells Options for Removing Accumulated Fluid and Improving Flow in Gas Wells, Lessons Learned $10,000-$50,000 1-3 years Production
Other Reduce Frequency of Replacing Modules in Turbine Meters, PRO Fact Sheet #906 $0 0-1 year

Transmission

Distribution

Other Redesign Blowdown Systems and Alter ESD Practices, PRO Fact Sheet #908 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year Transmission
Other Eliminate Unnecessary Equipment and/or Systems, PRO Fact Sheet #504 $1,000-$10,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Other Install Flares, PRO Fact Sheet #904 $10,000-$50,000 0-1 year

Production

Transmission

Other Nitrogen Rejection Unit Optimization, PRO Fact Sheet #905 > $50,000 0-1 year Gathering and Processing
Other Test and Repair Pressure Safety Valves, PRO Fact Sheet #602 < $1,000 0-1 year

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Other Install Electronic Flare Ignition Devices, PRO Fact Sheet #903 $1,000-$10,000 1-3 years

Production

Gathering and Processing

Transmission

Distribution

Other Replace Bi-Directional Orifice Metering with Ultrasonic Meters, PRO Fact Sheet #907 > $50,000 1-3 years

Transmission

Distribution