Renewable Fuel Standard Program

Approved Pathways for Renewable Fuel

Below is a list of approved fuel pathways under the RFS program. For a full description of the requirements for these pathways, see the RFS Regulations at 40 CFR part 80 subpart M.

Generally Applicable Pathways

Table 1 to § 80.1426—Applicable D Codes for Each Fuel Pathway for Use in Generating RINs
  Fuel type Feedstock Production process requirements D-Code
A

Ethanol

Corn starch

All of the following:
Dry mill process, using natural gas, biomass, or biogas for process energy and at least two advanced technologies from Table 2 to this section

6 (renewable)
B

Ethanol

Corn starch

All of the following:
Dry mill process, using natural gas, biomass, or biogas for process energy and at least one of the advanced technologies from Table 2 to this section plus drying no more than 65% of the distillers grains with solubles it markets annually

6 (renewable)

C

Ethanol

Corn starch

All of the following:
Dry mill process, using natural gas, biomass, or biogas for process energy and drying no more than 50% of the distillers grains with solubles it markets annually

6 (renewable)
D

Ethanol

Corn starch

Wet mill process using biomass or biogas for process energy

6 (renewable)
E

Ethanol

Starches from crop residue and annual covercrops

Fermentation using natural gas, biomass, or biogas for process energy

6 (renewable)
F

Biodiesel, renewable diesel, jet fuel and heating oil

Soybean oil;
Oil from annual covercrops;
Oil from algae grown photosynthetically;
Biogenic waste oils/fats/greases;
Non-food grade corn oil;
Camelina sativa oil

One of the following:
Trans-Esterification
Hydrotreating
Excluding processes that co-process renewable biomass and petroleum

4 (biomass-based diesel)
G

Biodiesel, heating oil

Canola/Rapeseed oil

Trans-Esterification using natural gas or biomass for process energy

4 (biomass-based diesel)

H

Biodiesel, renewable diesel, jet fuel and heating oil

Soybean oil;
Oil from annual covercrops;
Oil from algae grown photosynthetically;
Biogenic waste oils/fats/greases;
Non-food grade corn oil; Camelina sativa oil

One of the following:
Trans-Esterification
Hydrotreating
Includes only processes that co-process renewable biomass and petroleum

5 (advanced)

I Naphtha, LPG Camelina sativa oil Hydrotreating 5 (advanced)
J

Ethanol

Sugarcane

Fermentation

5 (advanced)

K

Ethanol

Crop residue, slash, pre-commercial thinnings and tree residue, switchgrass, miscanthus, energy cane, Arundo donax, Pennisetum purpureum, and separated yard waste; biogenic components of separated MSW; cellulosic components of separated food waste; and cellulosic components of annual covercrops.

Any process that converts cellulosic biomass to fuel.

3 (cellulosic biofuel)

L

Cellulosic diesel, jet fuel and heating oil

Crop residue, slash, pre-commercial thinnings and tree residue, switchgrass, miscanthus, energy cane, Arundo donax, Pennisetum purpureum, and separated yard waste; biogenic components of separated MSW; cellulosic components of separated food waste; and cellulosic components of annual covercrops.

Any process that converts cellulosic biomass to fuel.

7 (cellulosic biofuel or biomass-based diesel)

M Renewable gasoline and renewable gasoline blendstock. Crop residue, slash, pre-commercial thinnings, tree residue, and separated yard waste; biogenic components of separated MSW; cellulosic components of separated food waste; and cellulosic components of annual cover crops. Catalytic Pyrolysis and Upgrading, Gasification and Upgrading, Thermo-Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation and Upgrading, Direct Biological Conversion, Biological Conversion and Upgrading utilizing natural gas, biogas, and/or biomass as the only process energy sources providing that process used converts cellulosic biomass to fuel; any process utilizing biogas and/or biomass as the only process energy sources which converts cellulosic biomass to fuel. 3 (cellulosic biofuel)
N Naphtha Switchgrass, miscanthus, energy cane, Arundo donax, and Pennisetum purpureum Gasification and upgrading processes that converts cellulosic biomass to fuel. 3 (cellulosic biofuel)
O Butanol

Corn starch

Fermentation; dry mill using natural gas, biomass, or biogas for process energy

6 (renewable)

P

Ethanol, renewable diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, and naphtha.

The non-cellulosic portions of separated food waste and non-cellulosic components of annual cover crops.

Any

5 (advanced)
Q

Renewable Compressed Natural Gas, Renewable Liquefied Natural Gas, Renewable Electricity.

Biogas from landfills, municipal wastewater treatment facility digesters, agricultural digesters, and separated MSW digesters; and biogas from the cellulosic components of biomass processed in other waste digesters.

Any

3 (cellulosic biofuel)
R

Ethanol

Grain Sorghum

Dry mill process using biogas from landfills, waste treatment plants, and/or waste digesters, and/or natural gas, for process energy

6 (renewable)

S

Ethanol

Grain Sorghum

Dry mill process, using only biogas from landfills, waste treatment plants, and/or waste digesters for process energy and for on-site production of all electricity used at the site other than up to 0.15 kWh of electricity from the grid per gallon of ethanol produced, calculated on a per batch basis

5 (advanced)
T

Renewable Compressed Natural Gas, Renewable Liquefied Natural Gas, and Renewable Electricity.

Biogas from waste digesters Any 5 (advanced)
Table 2 to § 80.1426—Advanced Technologies
 
Corn oil fractionation that is applied to at least 90% of the corn used to produce ethanol on a calendar year basis.
Corn oil extraction that is applied to the whole stillage and/or derivatives of whole stillage and results in recovery of corn oil at an annual average rate equal to or greater than 1.33 pounds oil per bushel of corn processed into ethanol.
Membrane separation in which at least 90% of ethanol dehydration is carried out using a hydrophilic membrane on a calendar year basis.
Raw starch hydrolysis that is used for at least 90% of starch hydrolysis used to produce ethanol instead of hydrolysis using a traditional high heat cooking process, calculated on a calendar year basis.
Combined heat and power such that, on a calendar year basis, at least 90% of the thermal energy associated with ethanol production (including thermal energy produced at the facility and that which is derived from an off-site waste heat supplier), exclusive of any thermal energy used for the drying of distillers grains and solubles, is used to produce electricity prior to being used to meet the process heat requirements of the facility.

Completed Pathway Assessments

EPA Determination Fuel Feedstock D-Code Date
Poet Caro Ethanol Corn Starch 6 03/13/2017
Poet Corning Ethanol Corn Starch 6 03/13/2017
Poet Emmetsburg Ethanol Corn Starch 6 03/13/2017
Poet Gowrie Ethanol Corn Starch 6 03/13/2017
Poet Hanlontown Ethanol Corn Starch 6 03/13/2017
Poet Hudson Ethanol Corn Starch 6 03/13/2017
Poet Jewell Ethanol Corn Starch 6 03/13/2017
Gevo, Inc. Butanol Corn Starch and Grain Sorghum 5 or 6 12/22/2016

Commonwealth Agri-Energy, LLC
Ethanol Corn Starch 6 12/15/2016
Redfield Energy Ethanol Corn Starch 6 10/27/2016
Poet Lake Crystal Ethanol Corn Starch 6 09/19/2016
Green Plains Obion Ethanol Corn Starch 6 07/27/2016
Poet Alexandria Ethanol Corn Starch 6 06/30/2016
Poet Fostoria Ethanol Corn Starch 6 06/30/2016
Poet Leipsic Ethanol Corn Starch 6 06/30/2016
Poet Marion Ethanol Corn Starch 6 06/30/2016
Poet North Manchester Ethanol Corn Starch 6 06/30/2016
Poet Portland Ethanol Corn Starch 6 06/30/2016
Heartland Winthrop Ethanol Corn Starch 6 05/19/2016
Joule Unlimited Technologies, Inc. Ethanol Algae 5 03/29/2016
Green Plains Bluffton, LLC  Ethanol Corn Starch 6 03/16/2016
Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC Ethanol Barley Starch 5 11/20/2015
Kansas Ethanol, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/19/2015
Corn LP Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/19/2015
Andersons Albion Ethanol Corn Starch 6 10/22/2015
FHR Camilla Ethanol Corn Starch 6 10/22/2015
FHR Fairmont Ethanol Corn Starch 6 10/22/2015
FHR Iowa Falls Ethanol Corn Starch 6 10/22/2015
Valero Bloomingburg Ethanol Corn Starch 6 9/22/2015
Valero Albion Ethanol Corn Starch 6 9/22/2015
Valero Linden Ethanol Corn Starch 6 9/22/2015
Carbon Green Bioenergy Lake Odessa Ethanol Corn Starch 6 9/24/2015
Valero Albert City Ethanol Corn Starch 6 8/20/2015
Valero Charles City Ethanol Corn Starch 6 6/29/2015
Valero Aurora Ethanol Corn Starch 6 6/29/2015
OEE Gibson City Ethanol Corn Starch 6 6/29/2015
IBEC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 6/29/2015
Adkins Lena Ethanol Corn Starch 6 6/29/2015
East Kansas Agri-Energy, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 6/24/2015
NuGen Marion Ethanol Corn Starch 6 6/15/2015
Poet Laddonia Ethanol Corn Starch 6 6/15/2015
REF Onida Ethanol Corn Starch 6 6/15/2015
Bushmills Atwater Ethanol Corn Starch 6 5/13/2015
GLE Watertown Ethanol Corn Starch 6 5/13/2015
Aberdeen Energy Ethanol Corn Starch 6 5/13/2015
Granite Falls Ethanol Corn Starch 6 5/13/2015
Kansas Ethanol Lyons Ethanol Corn Starch 6 5/13/2015
SME Carrollton Ethanol Corn Starch 6 5/13/2015
Valero Hartley Ethanol Corn Starch 6 5/13/2015
WNYE Medina Ethanol Corn Starch 6 5/13/2015
ENVIA Energy, LLC Diesel, Naphtha Landfill Biogas 3 or 7 5/8/2015
Heron Lake Bioenergy, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 3/12/2015
United Wisconsin Grain Producers, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 3/12/2015
Guardian Lima, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 3/12/2015
Mid-Missouri Energy, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 3/12/2015
Green Plains Atkinson Ethanol Corn Starch 6 3/12/2015
Badger State Ethanol, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 1/29/2015
Green Plains Ord, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 1/29/2015
Lincolnland Agri-Energy, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 1/29/2015
Tharaldson Ethanol Plant 1, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 1/29/2015
Dakota Ethanol, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 1/29/2015
Green Plains Shenandoah, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 1/29/2015
Lincolnway Energy, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 1/29/2015
Farmers Energy Cardinal, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 1/29/2015
Highwater Ethanol, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 1/29/2015
Quad County Corn Processors Ethanol Corn Starch 6 1/29/2015
Algenol Biofuels, Inc. Ethanol Algae 5 12/2/2014
Cardinal Union City Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/26/2014
CHS Rochelle Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/26/2014
Husker Plainview Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/26/2014
LSCP Marcus Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/26/2014
NuGen Marion Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/26/2014
Patriot Annawan Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/26/2014
Red Trail Richardton Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/26/2014
Siouxland Jackson Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/26/2014
Marquis Energy Hennepin Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/13/2014
Oberon Dimethyl ether Biogas from waste digesters 3 or 5 8/12/2014
Edeniq Ethanol Crop residue (corn kernel fiber) 3 7/18/2014
Element Markets Renewable Compressed Natural Gas Biogas from waste digesters 3 or 5 7/18/2014
DriveGreen Renewable Electricity Biogas from waste digesters 3 or 5 7/18/2014
E-Energy Adams Ethanol Corn Starch 6 3/6/2014
11 Good Energy Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Soybean Oil 5 1/10/2014
Marquis Renewable Energy-Wisconsin Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/27/2013
Valero Fort Dodge Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/7/2013
Guardian Energy Ethanol Corn Starch 6 11/7/2013
Diamond Green Diesel, LLC Naphtha, LPG Non-food grade corn oil 5 10/28/2013
Valero Welcome Ethanol Corn Starch 6 7/17/2013
Hankinson Renewable Energy, LLC Ethanol Corn Starch 6 7/17/2013
Chemtex Group Cellulosic Biofuel New (Arundo donax) 3 or 7 7/11/2013
BP Biofuels North America, LLC Ethanol, cellulosic diesel, jet fuel and heating oil; naphtha Energy cane and Napier grass 3 or 7 3/5/2013
Kior, Inc. Renewable gasoline and renewable gasoline blendstock Cellulosic biomass from crop residue, slash, pre-commercial thinnings, tree residue, annual cover crops; cellulosic components of separated yard waste; cellulosic components of separated food waste; and cellulosic components of separated MSW 3 3/5/2013
Sundrop Fuels, Inc. Renewable gasoline and renewable gasoline blendstock Cellulosic biomass from crop residue, slash, pre-commercial thinnings, tree residue, annual cover crops; cellulosic components of separated yard waste; cellulosic components of separated food waste; and cellulosic components of separated MSW 3 3/5/2013
Terrabon, Inc. Renewable gasoline and renewable gasoline blendstock Cellulosic biomass from crop residue, slash, pre-commercial thinnings, tree residue, annual cover crops; cellulosic components of separated yard waste; cellulosic components of separated food waste; and cellulosic components of separated MSW 3 3/5/2013
Sustainable Oils Biodiesel, renewable diesel, jet fuel, heating oil, naphtha, LPG Camelina sativa oil 4 or 5 3/5/2013
Dakota Spirit AgEnergy, LLC Ethanol Corn starch 6 2/6/2013
Absolute Energy, LLC Ethanol Corn starch 6 2/6/2013
Western Plains Ethanol Grain sorghum 5 1/11/2013
Sabine Biofuels II, LLC Biodiesel Biogenic waste oils/fats/greases 4 9/26/2012
High Plains Bioenergy, LLC Biodiesel Biogenic waste oils/fats/greases 4 2/17/2012
Viesel Fuel, LLC Renewable diesel Soybean oil; Oil from annual cover crops; Algal oil; Biogenic waste oils/fats/greases; Non-food grade corn oil 4 9/29/2011
Changing World Technologies, Inc. Renewable diesel Biogenic waste oils/fats/grease 4 6/10/2011
Endicott Biofuels, LLC Biodiesel Soybean oil; Oil from annual cover crops; Algal oil; Biogenic waste oils/fats/greases; Non-food grade corn oil 4 4/6/2011
Global Energy Resources Renewable diesel Soybean oil; Oil from annual cover crops; Algal oil; Biogenic waste oils/fats/greases; Non-food grade corn oil 4 4/6/2011
Triton Energy, LLC Renewable diesel Soybean oil; Oil from annual cover crops; Algal oil; Biogenic waste oils/fats/greases; Non-food grade corn oil 4 12/10/2010

(See determination approval documents for more information about approved pathways)