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Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

How to Evaluate Alternative Cleanup Technologies for Underground Storage Tank Sites: A Guide for Corrective Action Plan Reviewers

(EPA 510-B-94-003; EPA 510-B-95-007; EPA 510-R-04-002; EPA 510-B-16-005; and EPA 510-B-17-003)

NOTE: QA documents referred to in some of the following chapters may be outdated. Visit The EPA Quality System web site for the latest version of EPA's QA documents.

The original guide, developed in 1994 (EPA 510-B-94-003), addressed eight alternative technologies:

You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.Soil Vapor Extraction (PDF) (37 pp, 2 MB) 
Air Sparging (PDF) (35 pp, 2 MB)
Biosparging (PDF) (41 pp, 2 MB)
Landfarming (PDF) (31 pp, 1 MB)
Biopiles (PDF) (31 pp, 1 MB)
Bioventing (PDF) (47 pp, 2 MB)
Low-Temperature Thermal Desorption (PDF) (35 pp, 1 MB)
Monitored Natural Attenuation (revised in 2004 - see link below)

EPA updated the guide several times:

1995 (EPA 510-B-95-007)
Dual-Phase Extraction (PDF) (44 pp, 2 MB)
In-Situ Groundwater Bioremediation (PDF) (42 pp, 800 K)

2004 (EPA 510-R-04-002)
Enhanced Aerobic Bioremediation (PDF) (74 pp, 351 K)
Chemical Oxidation (PDF) (53 pp, 332 K)
Monitored Natural Attenuation – revision (PDF) (78 pp, 852 K)

2016 (EPA 510-B-16-005)
Enhanced Anaerobic Oxidative Bioremediation (PDF) (79 pp, 2 MB)

2017 (EPA 510-B-17-003)
Introduction - revision (PDF) (4 pp, 214 K)
Appendix A Horizontal Remediation Wells (PDF) (47 pp, 4 MB)
Appendix B Abbreviations And Definitions - revision (PDF) (23 pp, 284 K)

For assistance with accessibility for the PDFs, please email Sharon Fredericks (

You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.