EPA has published final national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life from the toxic effects of ammonia in freshwater. EPA's 2013 ammonia criteria reflect new data on sensitive freshwater mussels and snails, incorporate scientific views EPA received on its draft 2009 criteria, and supercede EPA's previously recommended 1999 ammonia criteria. In addition to the criteria document, EPA has also published supporting information to assist states, territories, and authorized tribes considering adoption of the new recommended criteria into their water quality standards.
- Federal Register Notice: Final Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia - Freshwater 2013
- Docket ID # EPA-HQ-OW-2009-0921: Update of the 1999 Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia - Freshwater
What is Ammonia?
Ammonia is one of several forms of nitrogen that exist in aquatic environments. Unlike other forms of nitrogen, which can cause nutrient over-enrichment of a water body at elevated concentrations and indirect effects on aquatic life, ammonia causes direct toxic effects on aquatic life.
Where does Ammonia Come From?
Ammonia is produced for commercial fertilizers and other industrial applications. Natural sources of ammonia include the decomposition or breakdown of organic waste matter, gas exchange with the atmosphere, forest fires, animal and human waste, and nitrogen fixation processes.
Ammonia can enter the aquatic environment via direct means such as municipal effluent discharges and the excretion of nitrogenous wastes from animals, and indirect means such as nitrogen fixation, air deposition, and runoff from agricultural lands.
How does Ammonia affect Aquatic Life?
When ammonia is present in water at high enough levels, it is difficult for aquatic organisms to sufficiently excrete the toxicant, leading to toxic buildup in internal tissues and blood, and potentially death. Environmental factors, such as pH and temperature, can affect ammonia toxicity to aquatic animals.You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.
- Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia Freshwater - 2013 (PDF)(255 pp, 3 MB, April 2013, EPA 822-R-13-001)
- Fact Sheet Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia - Freshwater 2013 (PDF)(3 pp, 209 K, April 2013, 820-F-13-013)
- Flexibilities for States Applying EPA's Ammonia Criteria Recommendations (PDF)(11 pp, 564 K, April 2013, EPA-820-F-13-001)
- Technical Support Document for Conducting and Reviewing Freshwater Mussel Occurrence Surveys for the Development of Site-specific WQC for_Ammonia (PDF)(64 pp, 2 MB, August 2013, EPA 800-R-13-003)
- EPA Response to External Peer Review Comments on Draft 2009 Update Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia - Freshwater (PDF)(56 pp, 725 K, April 2013)
- Presentation Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia - Freshwater Final 2013 (PDF)(31 pp, 1 MB, October 2013)
- Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Saltwater) - 1989 (PDF)(67 pp, 2 MB, April 1989, EPA 440/5-88-004)
- Presentation Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia - Freshwater Implementation Stakeholder Meeting (PDF)(29 pp, 4 MB, October 2014)