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Benefits Reports for Air Pollution Regulations

EPA develops benefits analyses to quantify the value of improving human health and reducing environmental impacts of air pollution regulations. Benefits analyses include both quantitative and qualitative estimates of reducing exposure of humans and the environment to ambient concentrations of air pollution. This page contains links to information supporting benefits analyses prepared by EPA, arranged by topic.

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Benefits Reports

Expert Judgment / Expert Elicitation1
Summary of Expert Opinions on the Existence of a Threshold in the Concentration-Response Function for PM2.5-related Mortality(25 pp, 153 K) 08-2010
Peer Review of Expert Elicitation(56 pp, 805 K) 12-2006
Expanded Expert Judgment Assessment of the Concentration-Response Relationship Between PM2.5 Exposure and Mortality(109 pp, 1.3 MB) 09-2006
Expanded Expert Judgment Assessment of the Concentration-Response Relationship Between PM2.5 Exposure and Mortality Appendix A: Elicitation Protocol(113 pp, 2.1 MB) 09-2006
Response to Peer Review of An Expert Judgment Assessment of the Concentration-Response Relationship between PM2.5 Exposure and Mortality(4 pp, 131 K) 02-2005
Peer Review of An Expert Judgment Assessment of the Concentration-Response Relationship between PM2.5 Exposure and Mortality(43 pp, 208 K) 09-2004
An Expert Judgment Assessment of the Concentration-Response Relationship between PM2.5 Exposure and Mortality(94 pp, 901 K) 05-2004
An Expert Judgment Assessment of the Concentration-Response Relationship between PM2.5 Exposure and Mortality - Apendix(101 pp, 363 K) 05-2004

1The expert elicitation documents below were prepared in support of the characterization of uncertainty in EPA's benefits analyses associated with reductions in exposure to particulate matter pollution. As recommended by the National Academy of Sciences, EPA has used expert judgment as part of an effort to better describe the uncertanties inherent in any benefits analysis.

Visiblity Reports Cited in Benefits Documents
Review of Establishing and Valuing the Effects of Improved Visibility in Eastern United States(96 pp, 153 K) 06-2011
Methodology for Estimating Values for Changes in Visibility at National Parks(12 pp, 153 K) 06-2011
Responding to SAB Council Comments on the May 2003 Draft Analytical Plan for the Section 812 Second Prospective Analysis Visibility Benefits(22 pp, 153 K) 06-2011
Alternative Approach to Estimating Monetized Benefits of Residential Visibility for the Section 812 Second Prospective Analysis(44 pp, 153 K) 06-2011
Recommended Residential Visibility Values for the Section 812 Second Prospective Analysis(10 pp, 153 K) 06-2011
Regulatory Background Documents
Combined National and State-level Health Benefits for the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule and Mercury and Air Toxics Standards(10 pp, 155 K) 01-2012
Technical Support Document: Methodology Used to Generate Deposition, Fish Tissue Methylmercury Concentrations, and Exposure for Determining Effectiveness of Utility Emission Controls(69 pp, 2.1 MB) 03-2005
Mercury Exposure Peer Review Summary(54 pp, 195 K) 03-2005
Mercury Neurotoxicity Workshop Notes (November 2002)(13 pp, 101 K) 07-2004
Technical Support Document for the Heavy Duty Engine/Diesel Fuel Rule(196 pp, 798 K) 12-2000
Analysis of Ecosystem Benefits for Reductions of NOx and SOx Methodology Report(155 pp, 3.4 MB) 12-2009
Other Background Documents
Parametrizing the Integrated Exposure Response (IER) Function for Application in the Benefits Calculator(40 pp, 4.0 MB) 07-2015
Lowest Measured Level (LML) Assessment for Rules without Policy-specific Air Quality Data Available(10 pp, 69 K) 08-2010
Influence Analysis in Support of Characterizing Uncertainty in Human Health Benefits Analysis(149 pp, 1.9 MB) 12-2009
Other Reports Cited in Benefits Documents
Updating Income Elasticity Estimates in EPA BenMAP Air Pollution Benefits Estimation System(41 pp, 670 K) 11-2012
Methodology for County-level Mortality Rate Projections(3 pp, 23 K) 11-2012
Linkage between Health Effects Estimation and Morbidity Valuation in the Section 812 Analysis - Draft Valuation Document(26 pp, 1.2 MB) 02-2012
Urban Ornamental Plants: Sensitivity to Ozone and Potential Economic Losses(138 pp, 26.7 MB) 06-2011
Recommended Approach to Adjusting Willingness-to-Pay (WTP) Estimates to Reflect Changes in Real Income(23 pp, 68 K) 06-2011
Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI)
Impacts of Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI): An Independent Analysis of Benefits and Economic Impacts, Summary(19 pp, 130 K) 05-2002
Benefits Analysis of Alternative SAMI Strategies: Selected Health and Welfare Methods and Results(79 pp, 832 K) 05-2002

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