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Regulatory Impact Analyses for Air Pollution Regulations

As required under Executive Orders 12866 and 13563, EPA develops Regulatory Impact Analyses (RIAs) to support the development of national air pollution regulations. RIAs contain descriptions of the potential social benefits and social costs of a regulation, including those that cannot be quantified in monetary terms and a determination of the potential net benefits of the rule including an evaluation of the effects that are not monetarily quantified. Typically, an RIA is structured similarly to an EIA, except that a benefits analysis of the rule is included along with an estimation of the net benefits. RIA documents are listed below, organized by:

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RIAs for Sector Regulations

Below is a list of RIAs organized by the industry sector or source category sector for which they were developed. The RIAs are available in PDF format and can be downloaded by clicking on the links below.

Chemical Manufacturing Date
Mercury Cell Chlor Alkali Plants NESHAP, Proposal(116 pp, 824 K) 11/2010
Synthetic Organic Chemical Industry NESHAP, Final(169 pp, 7.5 MB) 03/1994
Coke Ovens Date
Coke Ovens NESHAP, Final(167 pp, 8.4 MB) 11/1992
Industrial/Commercial/Institutional (ICI) Boilers Date
ICI Boilers and Process Heaters NESHAP, Reconsideration Final(262 pp, 4.3 MB) 12/2012
ICI Boilers and Process Heaters NESHAP, Reconsideration Proposal(259 pp, 5.3 MB) 02/2012
ICI Boilers and Process Heaters NESHAP, Final(251 pp, 4.2 MB) 02/2011
ICI Boilers and Process Heaters NESHAP, Proposal(232 pp, 2.4 MB) 04/2010
Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters NESHAP, Final(282 pp, 37 MB) 02/2004
Nonmetallic Minerals Date
Brick and Structural Clay Products NESHAP, Final(124 pp, 939 K) 07/2015
Brick and Structural Clay Products NESHAP, Proposal(112 pp, 1.7 MB) 07/2014
Portland Cement Manufacturing NESHAP and NSPS, Final Amendments(174 pp, 2.1 MB) 08/2010
Portland Cement Manufacturing NESHAP, Proposal(115 pp, 1.0 MB) 04/2009
Nonroad Mobile Date
Nonroad Diesel Engines, Final(1,568 pp, 8.7 MB) 05/2004
Oil and Natural Gas Production Date
Oil and Natural Gas, Stay of Certain Requirements, Proposal(23 pp, 481 K) 10/2017
Oil and Natural Gas Industry NSPS, Final(196 pp, 2.3 MB) 05/2016
Oil and Natural Gas NSPS, Proposal(208 pp, 1.7 MB) 08/2015
Oil and Natural Gas Industry NESHAP and NSPS, Final and Amendments(224 pp, 1.8 MB) 04/2012
Oil and Natural Gas Industry NESHAP and NSPS, Proposal and Amendments(204 pp, 1.7 MB) 07/2011
Petroleum Refineries Date
Petroleum Refineries NSPS, Final(121 pp, 1.5 MB) 06/2012
Petroleum Refineries NSPS, Final(144 pp, 778 K) 04/2008
Petroleum Refineries NESHAP, Final(224 pp, 10 MB) 08/1995
Primary Metals Date
Manganese Ferroalloys RTR, Proposal(80 pp, 589 K) 11/2011
Pulp and Paper Date
Pulp and Paper NESHAP, Final(499 pp, 1.2 MB) 10/1997
Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Date
Existing Stationary Spark Ignition (SI) RICE NESHAP, Reconsideration(158 pp, 2.6 MB) 01/2013
Existing Stationary Compression Ignition (CI) Engines NESHAP, Reconsideration(164 pp, 2.2 MB) 01/2013
Existing Stationary Compression Ignition (CI) Engines NESHAP, Proposed Reconsideration(167 pp, 2.3 MB) 05/2012
Existing Stationary Spark Ignition RICE NESHAP, Proposed Reconsideration(159 pp, 2.7 MB) 05/2012
Existing Stationary Spark Ignition RICE NESHAP, Final(185 pp, 2.9 MB) 08/2010
Existing Stationary Compression Ignition RICE NESHAP, Final(147 pp, 2.1 MB) 02/2010
Existing Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines NESHAP, Proposal(136 pp, 2.0 MB) 02/2009
Stationary Spark Ignition (SI) NSPS and NESHAP, Final(54 pp, 511 K) 12/2007
Stationary Compression Ignition (CI) NSPS, Final(69 pp, 2.6 MB) 06/2006
Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines NESHAP, Final(247 pp, 7.9 MB) 02/2004
Transportation Manufacturing Date
Auto Mfg NESHAP, Final(130 pp, 7.0 MB) 02/2004
Utilities Date
Review of the Clean Power Plan, Proposal(198 pp, 1.3 MB) 10/2017
Clean Power Plan Rule, Final(343 pp, 4.5 MB) 08/2015
GHGs from Existing Electric Utility Generating Units, Federal Plan Requirements, Proposal(85 pp, 954 K) 08/2015
NSPS for GHGs from New Electric Utility Generating Units, Final(164 pp, 2.8 MB) 08/2015
Carbon Pollution Emission Guidelines, Supplemental Proposal(51 pp, 591 K) 10/2014
Carbon Pollution Guidelines for Existing Power Plants and Emission Standards for Modified and Reconstructed Power Plants, Proposal(376 pp, 4.3 MB) 06/2014
NSPS for GHGs from New Electric Utility Generating Units, Proposal(138 pp, 1.6 MB) 09/2013
NSPS for GHGs from New Electric Utility Generating Units, Proposal(108 pp, 1.3 MB) 03/2012
Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, Final(510 pp, 8.5 MB) 12/2011
Utility MACT and NSPS, Toxics Rule, Proposal(469 pp, 15 MB) 03/2011
Clean Air Mercury Rule, Final(570 pp, 13 MB) 03/2005
Waste Treatment and Disposal Date
Municipal Solid Waste Landfills NSPS, Final(225 pp, 1.9 MB) 07-2016
Municipal Solid Waste Landfills NSPS, Proposal(180 pp, 1.5 MB) 08/2015
Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units NSPS and Emissions Guideline, Reconsideration Final(151 pp, 2.1 MB) 12/2012
Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units NSPS and Emissions Guideline, Proposal(6 pp, 258 K) 03/2012
Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units NSPS and Emissions Guideline, Final(143 pp, 1.9 MB) 02/2011
Sewage Sludge Incineration Units, NSPS and Emissions Guideline, Cost and Benefit Changes Since Proposal(180 pp, 904 K) 01/2011
Sewage Sludge Incineration Units NSPS and Emissions Guideline, Proposal(176 pp, 845 K) 09/2010
Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units NSPS and Emissions Guideline, Final(155 pp, 1.7 MB) 04/2010
Hospital and Medical Waste Incinerators, Final(78 pp, 3.7 MB) 07/1997
Municipal Waste Combustors, Revision and Update(113 pp, 5.2 MB) 11/1990
Wood Heaters Date
Residential Wood Heaters NSPS Revision, Final(203 pp, 2.1 MB) 02/2015
Residential Wood Heaters NSPS, Proposed Revision(219 pp, 2.1 MB) 01/2014
Wood Products Manufacturing Date
Plywood NESHAP, Final(179 pp, 11 MB) 02/2004

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RIAs for Air Pollution Transport Regulations

Below is a list of RIAs for Air Pollution Transport regulations. The RIAs are available in PDF format and can be downloaded by clicking on the links below.

Air Pollution Transport Date
Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) Update for the 2008 O3 NAAQS, Final(207 pp, 3.1 MB) 09/2016
Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) Update, Proposal(231 pp, 3.0 MB) 11/2015
Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR), Final(414 pp, 7.7 MB) 06/2011
Federal Transport Rule, Proposal(393 pp, 5.0 MB) 06/2010
Clean Air Interstate Rule, Final(421 pp, 5.5 MB) 03/2005
Section 126 Petition Rule, Final(310 pp, 18 MB) 12/1999
NOx SIP Call, FIP, and Section 126 Petitions, Vol2, Final(186 pp, 4.5 MB) 12/1998
NOx SIP Call, FIP, and Section 126 Petitions, Vol1, Final(197 pp, 8.7 MB) 09/1998
Ozone Transport Rule, Supplemental Proposal(82 pp, 590 MB) 04/1998

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RIAs for New Source Review (NSR) Permitting Actions

Below is a list of RIAs for New Source Review (NSR) Permitting actions. The RIAs are available in PDF format and can be downloaded by clicking on the links below.

NSR Permitting Date
GHG Tailoring Rule, Final(230 pp, 867 MB) 05/2010
GHG Tailoring Rule, Proposal(157 pp, 570 K) 09/2009
Operating Permits Rule, Final(50 pp, 2.0 MB) 06/1992

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RIAs for Visibility Rules

Below is a list of RIAs for Visibility regulations. The RIAs are available in PDF format and can be downloaded by clicking on the links below.

Visibility Rules Date
Visibility Rule and BART for Regional Haze, Final(469 pp, 3.5 MB) 06/2005
Regional Haze Rule, Final(269 pp, 901 K) 04/1999

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RIAs for National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS)

Below is a list of RIAs for National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). As it does with all major rules, EPA conducts benefits and costs analyses of each proposed or revised NAAQS. These regulatory impact analyses are designed to inform the public and state, local, and tribal governments about the potential costs and benefits of implementing these important air quality standards. NAAQS RIAs are not a part of the standard selection process. The NAAQS RIAs are available in PDF format and can be downloaded by clicking on the links below.

NAAQS - Ozone (O3) Date
O3 NAAQS, Final(480 pp, 8.4 MB) 09/2015
O3 NAAQS, Proposal(575 pp, 12 MB) 11/2014
O3 NAAQS, Proposal(89 pp, 1.8 MB) 11/2009
O3 NAAQS, Final(558 pp, 12 MB) 03/2008
O3 NAAQS, Proposal(364 pp, 4.1 MB) 07/2007
O3 PM NAAQS, Final(741 pp, 4.8 MB) 07/1997
O3 NAAQS, Proposal(450 pp, 27 MB) 12/1996
NAAQS - Particulate Matter (PM) Date
PM NAAQS, Final(474 pp, 10 MB) 12/2012
PM NAAQS, Proposal(522 pp, 4.3 MB) 06/2012
PM NAAQS, Final(733 pp, 8.4 MB) 10/2006
O3 and PM NAAQS, Final(741 pp, 4.8 MB) 07/1997
PM NAAQS, Proposal(366 pp, 15 MB) 12/1996
NAAQS - Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Date
NO2 NAAQS, Final(155 pp, 2.6 MB) 01/2010
NO2 NAAQS, Proposal(244 pp, 4.7 MB) 07/2009
NAAQS - Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Date
SO2 NAAQS, Final(189 pp, 4.5 MB) 06/2010
SO2 NAAQS, Proposal(168 pp, 3.3 MB) 11/2009
NAAQS - Lead (Pb) Date
Lead NAAQS, Final(177 pp, 1.8 MB) 10/2008
Lead NAAQS, Proposal(168 pp, 960 K) 06/2008

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Guidance Relevant to Preparing RIAs

Economic Guidance Used Throughout EPA
EPA Guidelines for Preparing Economic Analyses
Regulatory Flexibility Act/Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Act
OAQPS Economic Analysis Resource Document
Note that this document is dated and we are currently considering steps to bring it up to date. The purpose of this document is to serve as a resource for EPA staff and others for understanding and performing economic analyses. This document should not be interpreted as guidance that will be followed exactly by EPA in its analyses. Each analysis performed by EPA presents unique features and hence this guidance is only advisory in nature. To obtain a copy of the document, contact Darryl Weatherhead at: weatherhead.darryl@epa.gov

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