GreenChill Regulatory Context
Phaseout of Ozone-Depleting Substances
Many of more than 37,000 retail food establishments (such as supermarkets, grocery stores, supercenters, and wholesale clubs) in the United States use HCFC-22 (also known as R-22) as their primary refrigerant. HCFC-22 is an ozone-depleting substance (ODS), and it is subject to phaseout under the Montreal Protocol, an international treaty to protect the stratospheric ozone layer. EPA regulations under the Clean Air Act (CFR Part 82, Subpart A) lay out a schedule to phaseout the production and import of ozone-depleting substances (ODS) to meet the requirements of the Montreal Protocol.
- On January 1, 2003, EPA limited how much and who could import/produce HCFC-22.
- On January 1, 2010, production and import of virgin HCFC-22 was banned in the United States. Exceptions are available for servicing of equipment made before this date (the so-called “servicing tail”), for export, and for processes resulting in transformation or destruction of the substances.
- On January 1, 2020, all production and import of virgin HCFC-22 will be banned, with exceptions for export and for processes resulting in transformation or destruction.
EPA also bans the import of used HCFC-22 without prior approval from both EPA and the government representing the country of export.
Under Section 608 of the Clean Air Act, EPA has established mandatory leak repair requirements for refrigeration equipment that exceeds certain leak rates. Specifically, owners of supermarket refrigeration equipment that leaks more than 35% of its ODS refrigerant charge are subject to mandatory leak repair time lines and recordkeeping requirements. These regulatory requirements may include equipment retirement, equipment repair, or conversion to non-ODS refrigerants.
On November 9, 2015, EPA proposed amendments to Section 608 of the Clean Air Act. For instructions and tips on how to submit your comments on the proposed amendments, see the GreenChill Tips and Guidance on Submitting Official Comments.
Supermarket Industry R-22 Use
Ozone-Depleting Substance Alternatives
- Under Section 612 of the Clean Air Act, EPA reviews alternatives to ozone-depleting refrigerants.
- Alternatives are found acceptable, acceptable subject to certain conditions, or unacceptable under EPA's Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program.
- View a list of acceptable alternative refrigerants, for use in new and/or retrofitted retail food refrigeration equipment.