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Industrial and Construction and Demolition (C&D) Landfills

EPA has developed minimum technical criteria that industrial landfills must meet (40 CFR Part 257). Solid waste disposal, including nonhazardous industrial waste, is overseen by the states. Some states may impose requirements that are more stringent than the federal requirements.  

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What is an industrial waste landfill?

An industrial waste landfill is any landfill other than a municipal solid waste landfill, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C hazardous waste landfill, or a Toxic Substances Control Act hazardous waste landfill. It is used to dispose of industrial solid waste, such as RCRA Subtitle D wastes (e.g., non-hazardous industrial solid waste defined in Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations or CFR in section 257.2), commercial solid wastes, or conditionally exempt small-quantity generator wastes. An industrial waste landfill includes all disposal areas at the facility.

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What is a construction and demolition (C&D) landfill?

A C&D landfill receives construction and demolition debris, which typically consists of roadwork material, excavated material, demolition waste, construction/renovation waste, and site clearance waste (40 CFR section 258.2). C&D landfills do not receive hazardous waste (40 CFR section 261.3) or industrial solid waste (40 CFR section 258.2), unless those landfills meet certain standards and are permitted to receive such wastes. Building materials containing lead and asbestos are also regulated by EPA.

Other types of C&D materials can include the following:

  • concrete
  • wood (from buildings)
  • asphalt (from roads and roofing shingles)
  • gypsum (the main component of drywall)
  • metals
  • bricks
  • glass
  • plastics
  • salvaged building components (doors, windows, and plumbing fixtures)
  • trees, stumps, earth and rock from clearing sites.

Reducing and recycling C&D materials conserves landfill space, reduces the environmental impact of producing new materials, creates jobs, and can reduce overall building project expenses through avoided purchase/disposal costs.

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