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Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids

Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) are present at numerous hazardous waste sites and are suspected to exist at many more. Due to the numerous variables influencing DNAPL transport and fate in the subsurface, and consequently, the ensuing complexity, DNAPLs are largely undetected and yet are likely to be a significant limiting factor in site remediation. This issue paper is a literature evaluation focusing on DNAPLs and provides an overview from a conceptual fate and transport point of view of DNAPL phase distribution, monitoring, site characterization, remediation, and modeling.

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