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Remediation Technologies for Cleaning Up Contaminated Sites

EPA has collected information about many types of remediation technologies used to clean up contaminated sites.

The information contained here represents current initiatives related to site cleanup, and includes websites maintained by EPA and other federal agencies and state organizations, as well as recent technical documents.

The information is organized into three sections (combined technology/contaminant resources; technology resources, and contaminant resources) to allow users to locate information by either technology or contaminant of interest.

On this page:

Combined Technology/Contaminant Resources

Superfund Cleanup Technologies
The Superfund Remedy Report (SRR), Fifteenth Edition, was published by EPA in July 2017. The SRR 15th Edition summarizes remedy decisions back to 1982 with a focus on the analysis of Superfund remedial actions selected from fiscal years (FY) 2012 to 2014. The report includes remedies selected in 308 decision documents (Records of Decision [RODs], ROD amendments, and Explanations of Significant Differences with changes to remedy components) signed in this three-year period. The SRR compiles data on overall remedy selection and remedies for source materials (such as soil and sediments), groundwater, surface water and air related to vapor intrusion. The report appendices summarize all the remedy components selected for sources and groundwater in each individual decision document. View the Superfund Remedy Report (SRR), Fifteenth Edition.

SERDP/ESTCP: ENVIRO Wiki

This website provides technology articles written by invited experts and edited by leaders in the environmental field. It aims to introduce and summarize current knowledge to environmental project professionals on topics using cross-linked references to reports and technical literature. View ENVIRO Wiki Exit

Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council

The Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC) is a public-private coalition working to reduce barriers to the use of innovative air, water, waste, and remediation environmental technologies and processes. With public and private sector members from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, ITRC produces documents and training that broaden and deepen technical knowledge and expedite quality regulatory decision making while protecting human health and the environment. Examples so recent remediation-related products include Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances, fact sheets that summarize the latest science and emerging technologies for PFAS and Characterization and Remediation in Fractured Rock, which explains the processes controlling contaminant fate and transport in fractured rock.  Visit ITRC Exit

The Remediation Technologies Screening Matrix
The remediation technologies screening matrix is a user-friendly tool to screen for technologies for a remediation project. The matrix allows you to screen through 64 in situ and ex situ technologies for either soil or groundwater remediation. Variables used in screening include contaminants, development status, overall cost, and cleanup time. In-depth information on each technology is also available, including direct links to over 209 cost and performance reports written by members of the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable. View the document online

Characterization, Cleanup and Revitalization of Mining Sites

This website provides site managers, regulatory agencies, consultants, and the public with information on technologies and resources related to the assessment, characterization, cleanup, and revitalization of current and former (active, closed, and abandoned) mining sites. Visit Characterization, Cleanup and Revitalization of Mining Sites

Examples of Groundwater Remediation at NPL Sites (EPA 542-R-18-002). This report highlights a select number of example National Priorities List (NPL) sites where EPA has used innovative and established technologies to restore groundwater for use as a source of drinking water. In these examples groundwater was successfully restored for drinking water use at 17 NPL sites and significant progress toward groundwater restoration was made at an additional 13 NPL sites where contaminants remain above safe drinking water levels. These sites demonstrate how the Superfund program can overcome challenges related to difficult contaminants of concern and complex hydrogeologic settings (May 2018, 114 pages). View or download at https://www.epa.gov/remedytech/examples-groundwater-remediation-npl-sites

Newsletters on Innovative Treatment Technologies


TechDirect is an information service that highlights new publications and events of interest to site remediation and site assessment professionals. At the beginning of every month, the service, via e-mail, will distribute a message describing the availability of publications and events. For publications, the message will explain how to obtain a hard copy or how to download an electronic version.

The Technology Innovation News Survey contains market/commercialization information; reports on demonstrations, feasibility studies and research; and other news relevant to the hazardous waste community interested in technology development. This report is updated each twice a month.

Federal Business Opportunities (FedBizOpps) contains summaries of procurement and contract award notices issued the previous week that pertain to hazardous waste, solid waste, underground storage tank remediation, and other environmental topics. However, it does not necessarily contain EVERY notice on these topics. Federal Business Opportunities (FedBizOpps) is published weekly.

Browse or search EPA documents on remediation technologies. View Documents

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Technology-Specific Resources

Clu-In Technology Focus Area
Through the Technology Focus section, CLU-IN provides a compilation of the most relevant information sources on remediation technologies. These resources are presented under 5 categories for each technology such as Technology Description, Applications, Engineering/Regulatory Guidance, Training and References, with a summary and direct link to each one of them. Technologies included range from the established (SVE) to innovative (Phytoremediation). Visit Technology Focus Area

Navy: Remediation Technologies
Informational webpage describes more than 40 in situ and ex situ remediation technologies for soil, groundwater, surface water, and sediment, as well as capping of wastes. Applicability, cost, duration, and limitations are discussed, and links to publications are provided.Visit Navy: Remediation Technologies

Citizen's Guides to Cleanup Technologies
The Citizen's Guide series is a set of 22 fact sheets that summarize cleanup methods used at Superfund and other sites. The series was originally released 10 years ago and was updated in 2012 to include information about new technologies and techniques. Each fact sheet is two pages long and answers six questions about the cleanup method: 1) What is it? 2) How does it work? 3) How long will it take? 4) Is it safe? 5) How might it affect me? and 6) Why use it. View Citizen's Guides

U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit; Buyer's Guide to U.S. Environmental Technologies and Service Providers

Online tool serves as a buyer's resource guide combining EPA expertise on solving environmental challenges with a catalogue of U.S. providers of related technologies. Users identify their environmental issue and preferred solution, and the tool identifies U.S solution providers. Visit U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit; Buyer's Guide to U.S. Environmental Technologies and Service Providers

Ecological Revitalization

Ecological revitalization refers to the process of returning land from a contaminated state to one that supports a functioning and sustainable habitat. EPA has developed this website to summarize timely information about the use of ecological revitalization at contaminated properties. The website also contains information about completed and on-going projects where ecological revitalization was involved in solutions to various environmental concerns. These profiles provide information on site history, contaminants of concern and the ecological revitalization approach taken at each site. Technical considerations, long-term stewardship and operation and maintenance requirements are also included in each profile. Visit Ecological Revitalization

Green Remediation
EPA's green remediation website explains the basic principles and objectives of green remediation, and outlines best practices for reducing the environmental footprint of contaminated site cleanup projects. Over coming months, the site will expand to describe more details on green remediation best practices, and serve as a clearinghouse for technical materials, decision-making tools, site-specific case studies illustrating green remediation implementation efforts, and information on green remediation related events and new information products. Visit Green Remediation Area

Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable Case Studies

The Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable is at the forefront of the federal government's efforts to promote interagency cooperation to advance the use of innovative remediation technologies. The cost and performance reports provide the recommended procedures for documenting results from completed full-scale hazardous waste site remediation projects. Roundtable member Agencies include the EPA, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). View FRTR Reports

Brownfields Road Map to Understanding Options for Site Investigation and Cleanup, Sixth Edition (EPA 542-R-17-003). The Brownfields Road Map 6th Edition breaks down Brownfields site investigation and cleanup into an easy to understand, step-by-step process that provides valuable and up-to-date information to a wide range of Brownfields stakeholders involved in or affected by the redevelopment of Brownfields sites. It introduces readers to a range of considerations and activities, and provides links to online technical resources and tools. The Road Map also highlights ten important issues, processes and initiatives commonly encountered by Brownfields stakeholders through "spotlights." These focus areas provide a quick look at topics currently relevant to Brownfields projects and provide links to additional information (November 2017, 86 pages). View or download Brownfields Road Map

Remedial Technology Fact Sheet - Activated Carbon-Based Technology for In Situ Subsurface Remediation (EPA 542-F-18-001). This fact sheet concerns an emerging remedial technology that applies a combination of activated carbon (AC) and chemical and/or biological amendments for in situ remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated by organic contaminants, primarily petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents. The technology typically is designed to carry out two contaminant removal processes: adsorption by AC and destruction by chemical and/or biological amendments. With the development of several commercially available AC-based products, this remedial technology has been applied with increasing frequency at contaminated sites across the country. This fact sheet provides information to practitioners and regulators for a better understanding of the science and current practice of AC-based remedial technologies for in situ applications (April 2018, 9 pages). View or download at https://semspub.epa.gov/src/document/HQ/100001159.

In Situ Treatment Performance Monitoring: Issues and Best Practices (EPA 542-F-18-002). The purpose of this issue paper is to describe how in situ treatment technologies may impact sampling and analysis results used to monitor treatment performance and provide best practices to identify and mitigate issues that may affect sampling or analysis. This paper discusses eight potential sampling or analytical issues associated with groundwater monitoring at sites where in situ treatment technologies are applied. These issues are grouped under three topic areas: Issues related to monitoring wells (Section 2); Representativeness of monitoring wells (Section 3); Post-sampling artifacts (Section 4) (April 2018, 15 pages). View or download In Situ Treatment Performance Monitoring: Issues and Best Practices

Ecosystem Services at Contaminated Site Cleanups (EPA 542-R-17-004)

The U.S. EPA developed this issue paper to provide cleanup site teams with information about ecosystem services. These concepts and tools are useful in communicating the positive results of cleanup in addition to achieving the goals of cleanup. Information about ecosystem services may be considered in characterization of future land use options or design of a cleanup that is consistent with anticipated ecological reuse, depending on the regulatory authority of the cleanup program. View or download Ecosystem Services at Contaminated Site Cleanups

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Contaminant-specific Resources

Clu-In Contaminant Focus Area
Through the Contaminant Focus section, CLU-IN provides a compilation of the most relevant information sources on selected frequently occurring contaminants or those of particular interest. These resources are presented in categories such as Policy and Guidance, Chemistry and Behavior, Environmental Occurrence, Toxicology, Detection and Site Characterization, Treatment Technologies, and Conferences and Seminars, with a summary and direct link to each one of them. Contaminants include both organic compounds (e.g., 1,4-dioxane) and inorganic compounds (e.g., arsenic). Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is a recently added contaminant focus area. Visit Contaminant Focus Area

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