Proven Alternatives for Aboveground Treatment of Arsenic in Groundwater
This issue paper, developed for EPA's Engineering Forum, identifies and summarizes experiences with proven aboveground treatment alternatives for arsenic in groundwater, and provides information on their relative effectiveness and cost. The four technologies included in the report are precipitation/coprecipitation, adsorption, ion exchange, and membrane filtration. The report describes the theory and operation of each technique, available project-specific performance and cost data, and limitations. The report also discusses special considerations for retrofitting systems to meet the lower arsenic drinking water standard (maximum contaminant level or MCL) of 10 ug/l.