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Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

Rule Summary

Portland Cement is the principal ingredient in concrete, which is used worldwide as the main building block of infrastructure construction as well as for commercial and residential structures.  

Air toxics, also referred to as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), are those pollutants that are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects. Portland cement manufacturing is an energy intensive process in which cement is made by grinding and heating a mixture of raw materials such as limestone, clay, sand, and iron ore in a rotary kiln. The kiln is a large furnace that is fueled by coal, oil, gas, coke and/or various waste materials. The product (called clinker) from the kiln is cooled, ground, and then mixed with a small amount of gypsum to produce portland cement.

The main source of air toxics emissions from a portland cement plant is the kiln. Emissions originate from the burning of fuels and heating of feed materials. Air toxics are also emitted from the grinding, cooling, and materials handling steps in the manufacturing process. Pollutants regulated under this rule are particulate matter, organic HAP, metals through the control of particulate matter, mercury, acid gases, and dioxin/furan.

Rule History

07/25/2018 - Final Risk and Technology Review Rule

09/21/2017 - Proposed Risk and Technology Review Rule

08/11/2017 - Good Cause Final Rule

08/11/2017 - Proposed Rule (reopening comment period)

06/19/2017 – Direct Final Rule

06/19/2017 - Parallel Proposed Rule

07/25/2016 - Direct Final Rule

07/25/2016 - Parallel Proposed Rule

09/11/2015 – Final Rule; correcting amendments

07/27/2015 – Final Amendments

11/19/2014 – Proposed Rule

02/12/2013 – Final Rule

07/18/2012 – Proposed Rules on Reconsideration

05/17/2011 - Denial in Part and Grant in Part of Petitions to Reconsider

01/18/2011 – Direct Final rule; amendments

09/09/2010 – Final Rule

06/09/2009 - Notice of Public Hearings and Extension of Public Comment Period

05/06/2009 – Proposed Rule

12/20/2006 – Final Rule

01/09/2006 – Proposed Rule

12/02/2005 – Proposed Rule; amendments

12/06/2002 – Final Rule; amendments

07/05/2002 – Final Rule; clarifications and corrections

07/02/2002 – Partial Withdrawal of Direct Final Rule

04/05/2002 – Proposed Rule & Direct Final Rule

10/04/2001 – Proposed Settlement for Public Comment

06/14/1999 – Final Rule

03/24/1998 – Proposed Rule

Additional Resources

Fact Sheet:  Final Risk and Technology Review (7/13/2018)

Fact Sheet: Direct Final and Parallel Proposal (6/19/2017)

2010 Summary of Environmental and Cost Impacts for Portland Cement NESHAP

Regulatory Impact Analysis April 2009

Regulatory Impact Analysis: Amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) and New Source Perofrmance Standards (NSPS) for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Final Report

2010 Response to Comments

Final Rules for Portland Cement Manufacturing Plants Fact Sheets (Actions from 1999 - 2015)

To find additional supporting documents for the rules until 2011, look through the documents in the docket folder.

To find additional supporting documents for the rules after 2011, look through the documents in the docket folder.

Submitting Data Corrections for the proposed Risk and Technology rule published September 21, 2017 

Related Rules

NOx Control Technologies for the Cement Industry

Portland Cement Plants: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)


National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Subpart LLL Rule Guidance

Applicability Determination Index (ADI).  The ADI is maintained by EPA's Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA) and provides a data base of memoranda dealing with applicability issues.  The database is searchable by Subpart.