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Superfund Sites in Reuse in Colorado

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Asarco, Inc. (Globe Plant)

The ASARCO, Inc. (Globe Plant) site is located in Globeville, an industrial, commercial and residential area near the South Platte River in Denver, Colorado. Various metal and refining operations took place on site between 1886 and 2006. Historical operations contaminated soil, sediment, groundwater and surface water with metals and other chemicals. Cleanup is ongoing. EPA proposed the site for the National Priorities List (NPL) in May 1993. EPA removed it from NPL listing consideration in 2014. Site characterization and cleanup took place under a series of agreements between the State of Colorado and ASARCO. Crossroads Commerce Park opened on site in 2016. The business park includes warehousing, distribution and light industrial businesses. The facility provides about 1 million square feet of space.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA had data on 413 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 4,103 people and generated an estimated $1,114,213,609 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Broderick Wood Products

Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rail line embankment in 2004Broderick Wood ProductsThe Broderick Wood Products (BWP) Superfund site is located north of Denver, Colorado, in unincorporated Adams County. BWP operated a wood-treating facility on site from 1947 to 1982. BWP treated power poles, fence posts, railroad ties and other wood products on the 64-acre property. Operators disposed of hazardous waste from the process in two unlined impoundments on site. In 1984, EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) due to contaminated groundwater, soil and sludge. Broderick Investment Company (BIC), the potentially responsible party, completed most of the cleanup between 1989 and 1994. In 2003 and 2004, Union Pacific Railroad worked with EPA, the State and BIC on a rail line embankment across the site. As part of this project, parties made improvements to site cleanup systems. In 2005, BIC constructed a second access road at the site’s northern boundary. This road served as the primary access point and helped facilitate redevelopment. In January 2007, BIC sold most of the site property to Scott Contracting. Brannan Sand & Gravel acquired the property in 2013. It operates an asphalt plant on site.
Last updated April 2018

As of December 2017, EPA had data on one on-site business. This business employed 5 people and generated an estimated $6,845,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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California Gulch Athletic Fields Reuse Cultural/Historical Reuse

A playground is part of the new sports facilities atop a former zinc smelter siteCalifornia GulchLocated in Lake County, Colorado, the 18-square-mile California Gulch Superfund site includes the City of Leadville and surrounding area. Beginning in 1857, prospectors and companies mined the area extensively for heavy metals. Mining operations left mining byproducts on site. These materials contain heavy metals that contaminated native soils and waterways, like the Arkansas River. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1983. Cleanup actions in over eighty percent of the site, including the City of Leadville, are complete. EPA has removed those areas from the NPL. Over the years, EPA worked with the State, the community and the site’s potentially responsible parties to coordinate redevelopment and ecological restoration work. Some redevelopment activities include an urban development project at an old railyard, a community sports complex, a nationally-recognized multi-use paved trail called the Mineral Belt Trail, and recreational trails along the Arkansas River. Currently, a 250-home mixed use development is underway at the Old Railyard site, also known as Poverty Flats. This development includes commercial and retail space, single-family homes, townhomes and condominiums. Another example of redevelopment is a $1.5 million public sports complex. The complex includes a soccer field built in 2009 on a former zinc smelter. One of EPA’s national partners, the United States Soccer Foundation, awarded a $10,000 grant to develop initial plans for the facility. Community support also led to the creation of a 21,000-square-foot concrete skate park that opened in the fall of 2013. Additionally, a community-driven initiative called the Huck Finn Park Project upgraded an existing Leadville park into a skate board park along with new ice skating facilities, which include a warming hut, restrooms, concessions and park equipment storage. Moreover, the community also incorporated reuse of mining byproducts into the design of the Mineral Belt Trail, which opened in 2000. This nationally-recognized recreation trail is built around the city along a railroad grade, which weaves through the historic mining district highlighting the community’s history and heritage. Recreational reuse at the site also includes the Arkansas River Trail, a 5-mile loop along the Upper Arkansas River. In 1998, EPA and the State signed agreements to provide public access to open space near the Arkansas River. State and local governments purchased more than 2,300 acres of ranch land that serve as wildlife habitat and recreational resources. After decades of cleanup, which benefited the ecology of the watershed, Colorado Parks and Wildlife honored the site with a Gold Medal Waters designation in 2014. The designation notes the accomplishment of the Upper Arkansas River’s improved water quality and revitalized habitat for trout and other wildlife.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA had data on 168 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 1,165 people and generated an estimated $85,395,571 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Central City, Clear Creek Cultural/Historical Reuse

The 400-square-mile Central City, Clear Creek Superfund site includes the former mining towns of Central City and Black Hawk, Colorado. For almost a century, vast deposits of gold and silver ores in the area supported a profitable mining industry. In the early 1900s, business in Central City and Black Hawk dramatically declined. This decline left the towns with a weakened economy and deteriorating infrastructure. The mining industry also left behind waste rock and mine tailings that contaminated the Clear Creek watershed. In July 1983, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL). In partnership with the State, EPA conducted cleanup in stages. After Colorado amended its laws to allow gaming in the former mining towns, parties worked with casino developers to clean up areas of the two towns to support casinos, hotels and restaurants. As parties developed the former mining property, they conducted cleanup actions. In 2009, funding for cleanup supported the consolidation and capping of additional mine waste piles, implementation of sediment and drainage controls, and water treatment to restore Clear Creek. Cleanup goals include protection of the Clear Creek watershed. The watershed provides a wide range of recreational opportunities, including rafting, kayaking and fishing. The historic Argo gold mill site hosts tours and serves as a tourism attraction. Site cleanup is ongoing.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA had data on 2 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 4 people and generated an estimated $141,230 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Chemical Sales Co. Core Infrastructure Reuse

The 5-square-mile Chemical Sales Co. (CSC) Superfund site is located in a light industrial area in Denver, Colorado. Residential, commercial and municipal land uses are located on site. CSC, a wholesale distributor of commercial and industrial chemicals, detergents and water leisure products, occupied a warehouse on site in 1976. CSC activities led to the contamination of soil and area groundwater. In 1989, EPA removed leaking and corroded drums from the property. Acting on behalf of EPA, the State began additional cleanup actions in 1989. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. Between 1986 and 1995, the public water district connected over 400 residences to the municipal water supply. Following cleanup, operation and maintenance activities are ongoing. Groundwater and land use restrictions are in place at the site. ACME Metals purchased the property from CSC in 1995. ACME Metals continues to operate on the site.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA had data on 62 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 830 people and generated an estimated $360,719,305 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Colorado Smelter

The Colorado Smelter Superfund site is located in Pueblo, Colorado. The silver and lead smelter which operated on site from 1883 to 1908 contributed to site contamination. The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment discovered elevated lead and arsenic in soils. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 2014 because of arsenic and lead contamination in smelter waste and neighborhood soils. EPA is studying the amount and location of contamination on the smelter site and in the surrounding Bessemer, Eiler and Grove neighborhoods. EPA will release the proposed plan for cleanup in 2017. EPA cleaned up lead dust from 20 homes in 2016 and is sampling lead inside homes and outdoors. The study area includes about 1,900 homes and parks that are currently in use in a half-mile radius of the smelter site. In 2015, EPA’s Superfund Redevelopment Initiative provided two regional seeds to look at reuse for the Colorado Smelter site. This effort also involved bringing in the Partnership for Sustainable Communities, a collaboration among the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, the U.S. Department of Transportation, and EPA. This broader reuse effort has evolved into the Colorado Smelter Revitalization Project (CSRP), a partnership with local, state and federal agencies. The CSRP meets regularly to consider reuse opportunities at the site and in surrounding neighborhoods.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. For additional information click here.

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Denver Radium Site Capped Site Reuse Core Infrastructure Reuse

A sign outside of the Home Depot store completed in 1996 on the Denver Radium siteDenver Radium SiteThe Denver Radium Superfund site, located in Denver, Colorado, consists of over 65 properties along the South Platte River Valley. In the early 1900s, Denver ore-processing facilities provided a domestic source of radium for the demand of nearby businesses. After the radium industry's collapse in the 1920s, radioactive substances remained in locations across the Denver area. Parties often used these substances as fill or for paving materials. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1983. Most of the Denver Radium properties support commercial or industrial uses, although there are public service uses, a few residential properties and some open space on site as well. EPA and the State of Colorado designed a flexible cleanup plan that would protect human health and the environment while allowing for future redevelopment. Redevelopment has taken place at several cleaned-up properties. Home Depot USA, Inc. (Home Depot) selected a portion of the site for the location of one of their retail stores. Cleanup work at the Home Depot location included covering contaminated soils with a protective soil cap designed for the store's parking lot. EPA developed a Prospective Purchaser Agreement (PPA) and a Covenant Not to Sue to address Home Depot's concerns regarding the company’s potential responsibility for site contamination. The requirements of the PPA ensured the site’s soil cap maintenance over time. Other reuses at the site include Ruby Hill Park, which provides a community swimming pool and other recreation resources, and Evans Station Lofts, a 224-apartment complex.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA had data on 75 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 1,125 people and generated an estimated $282,429,200 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Eagle Mine Capped Site Reuse

The Eagle Mine Superfund site is located in Eagle County, Colorado, about 1 mile from Minturn and 75 miles west of Denver. Beginning in the 1880s, a 110-acre gold and silver mine operated on site. In 1938, Eagle Mine transitioned to support zinc mining, which left high levels of metals in the soil, surface water and groundwater. Zinc mining operations ended in 1977. Copper and silver mining and production continued at Eagle Mine until its closure in 1984. EPA added the site to the Superfund program’s National Priorities List (NPL) in 1986. Cleanup included the removal of contaminated soils and sediments, containment of mine seepage and runoff, monitoring of surface water, groundwater, pool water and stream water, and land use controls. The potentially responsible party conducted most cleanup actions between 1989 and 2001. After cleanup, community members began using the adjacent Eagle River again as a recreation resource. In 2004, a developer purchased 750 acres of site property for construction of residential golf course community. In 2009, a new developer with smaller-scale plans took over the project. EPA and the State are currently working with the developer to make sure that all necessary investigation and cleanup steps occur to prepare the property for residential redevelopment. Groundwater treatment and monitoring are ongoing.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. For additional information click here.

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Lincoln Park

Lincoln ParkLincoln ParkThe Lincoln Park Superfund site includes about 5 square miles of suburban and rural land located about 2 miles south of Canon City, Colorado. The site consists of a former uranium/molybdenum processing mill and contamination resulting from the mill operations. From 1958 to 1987, the Cotter Corporation Uranium Mill produced uranium and radioactive substances on site for the Atomic Energy Commission. During operations, workers released waste into unlined ponds. During a flood in 1965, waste materials overflowed into nearby Sand Creek and a downstream residential area called Lincoln Park. As a result of uranium-processing waste reaching area soil, surface water and groundwater, EPA added the site to the Superfund program’s National Priorities List (NPL) in 1984. The Cotter Corporation agreed to perform cleanup actions. Activities included construction of a clay barrier and a pumping system to contain and collect contaminated groundwater. The responsible party also removed contaminated sediments from Sand Creek. The mill is currently being decommissioned. Cleanup is ongoing. Many properties at the site, including the community of Lincoln Park, remain in active use. These land uses include homes, farms, grazing areas and businesses. Reuse planning efforts are also ongoing for undeveloped parts of the site. Community reuse goals for these areas focus on a mix of light industrial and renewable energy uses as well as habitat and recreation areas.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA had data on 38 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 199 people and generated an estimated $11,308,230 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Lowry Landfill Alternative Energy Reuse Capped Site Reuse Core Infrastructure Reuse

Utility vehicle parked outside the new landfill gas-to-energy plant which opened in September 2008Lowry LandfillThe 480-acre Lowry Landfill Superfund site is located in Aurora, Colorado. In 1964, the former owner of the land deeded the site to the City and County of Denver. The localities operated a municipal landfill on site from the mid-1960s until 1984. The landfill accepted industrial and municipal wastes. After 1984, the site continued to accept municipal solid waste until 1990. Storage practices on site resulted in toxic gas, contaminated groundwater and soils. As a result, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1984. EPA’s cleanup included a groundwater barrier wall, a groundwater treatment plant, a landfill cover and a landfill gas collection system. After EPA completed construction of cleanup components, the City of Denver, Waste Management and local utility Xcel Energy partnered to reuse the site’s landfill gas. In July 2007, construction began on a landfill gas-to-energy plant at Lowry Landfill and the adjoining Denver Arapahoe Disposal site. The plant, which opened in September 2008, uses four combustion engines to convert 630 million cubic feet of methane gas annually from both sites into 3.2 megawatts of electrical power. This process reduces greenhouse gases and provides electricity for about 3,000 households. The plant removes about 5,000 tons of methane from the landfill annually. This is the equivalent of removing 22,000 cars from the road each year.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA had data on 2 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 37 people and generated an estimated $8,733,740 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Marshall Landfill

The 160-acre Marshall Landfill Superfund site is located in Boulder, Colorado. Starting in 1965, the landfill accepted sewage sludge and unknown wastes in addition to municipal waste. City officials raised concerns about contamination of chemicals and dissolved metals in drinking water supplies. As a result, EPA added the site to the Superfund program’s National Priorities List (NPL) in 1983. Cleanup activities have included operating a groundwater treatment system and maintaining the landfill cover. Groundwater monitoring is ongoing. In 1986, EPA required tracking additional chemical compounds in groundwater samples. Remedy construction reached completion in August 1993. In 2013, solar developer Clean Energy Collective completed construction of a 500-kilowatt solar project adjacent to the site. EPA helped facilitate the location of the solar array, while ensuring that groundwater monitoring functioned properly. In 2010, legislation passed requiring tax rebates for community-owned solar programs. The project is the first community solar program of Xcel Energy’s Clean Energy Collective. Builders projected the solar array will produce 830,000 kilowatts of power in the first year, and reduce carbon dioxide output by 15,000 tons in the first 20 years. The site demonstrates how reuse can be effectively coordinated with remedy components.
Last updated October 2015

As of December 2017, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. For additional information click here.

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Sand Creek Industrial

The 550-acre Sand Creek Industrial Superfund site is located in Denver and Commerce City, Colorado. An oil refinery, a pesticide manufacturing facility, an herbicide chemical plant and a landfill contributed to site contamination. These facilities are currently inactive. In 1983, EPA placed the site on the Superfund program’s National Priorities List (NPL) because of soil and groundwater contamination. Cleanup included removal of buildings, rail cars and tanks, removal and treatment of contaminated soil, landfill capping, and gas collection and treatment. After cleanup, EPA took the site off the NPL in 1996. Operation and maintenance activities at the site are ongoing. Groundwater and land use restrictions are in place at the site. The federal government has sold its properties at the site to private entities. The properties sold included the Matteson Warehouse, the Four-Acre Parcel and the Railroad Property. The properties also included two landfill parcels known as the Colorado Paint Property and the Colorado Eastern Property.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA had data on 90 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 1,796 people and generated an estimated $572,027,742 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Smeltertown Site Capped Site Reuse Cultural/Historical Reuse

The entrance to the sand and gravel business on siteSmeltertown SiteThe 120-acre Smeltertown Superfund site is located near Salida in Chaffee County, Colorado. Many industrial businesses operated on the site over the past century, including lead-zinc smelting and wood-treating businesses. Facility operations contaminated soil, groundwater and surface water. After timber operations ended in 1965, the Butala Construction Company began using the area for sand and gravel mining. EPA began investigating the site in 1986, and selected cleanup plans for the site in 1996 and 1998. The companies responsible for the contamination removed and placed contaminated materials in an on-site capped repository, which was then fenced. Monitoring of groundwater as well as surface water of the adjacent Arkansas River are ongoing. Institutional controls restrict land and groundwater use. Today, the Butala Construction Company continues to operate a sand and gravel quarry on site. The National Park Service listed the former smelter’s 365-foot smokestack on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. In 2015, a highway marker was created to relay the smokestack’s status and historical importance.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA had data on one on-site business. This business employed 18 people and generated an estimated $3,380,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Smuggler Mountain Capped Site Reuse

The 110-acre Smuggler Mountain Superfund site is located in Aspen, Colorado. Between 1879 and 1920, silver and lead mines operated on site. Mining and smelting activities created byproducts and waste materials containing metals and lead. Piles of exposed waste materials eventually spread and mixed with area soils. In the 1980s, soil analyses identified high levels of lead and cadmium. To address area-wide contamination, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1986. Cleanup focused on the original mine site, Smuggler Mine, and the northeastern edge of Aspen. Pitkin County and New Smuggler Mine Corporation led cleanup actions. Activities included covering and revegetating areas of mine waste. The parties also secured former mine areas to prevent further contamination and tested residents’ blood-lead levels. After cleanup, EPA took the site off the NPL in September 1999. A 116-acre residential area now occupies a major portion of the site; it includes condominiums, mobile home communities, a tennis club and single-family homes. Non-residential portions of the site are a tourist attraction for Colorado travelers. Visitors can tour the mine site and its public use helps bring new income and investments to the community.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA had data on 31 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 80 people and generated an estimated $6,133,850 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Summitville Mine Alternative Energy Reuse Green Remediation Reuse

The 1,400-acre Summitville Mine Superfund site is a former gold mine in Rio Grande County, Colorado. The site sits at an elevation of 11,000 feet near the timberline in the San Juan Range of the Colorado Rockies. The area was a gold mine beginning in the late 1800s. By 1984, Summitville Consolidated Mining Corporation began open-pit mining for gold, copper and silver. Mining processes contaminated the surrounding area, including Wightman Fork Creek and Terrace Reservoir. Mining operations did not stop until the company announced its pending bankruptcy and informed the State of Colorado that financial support for site operations would not continue beyond December 15, 1992. On December 16, 1992, EPA Region 8 assumed control and immediately began emergency removals to address the open pit mine, contaminated soil and sediment. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1994. Today, EPA and the State have reclaimed and revegetated the former mine lands to prevent further contamination of surrounding creeks and streams. A treatment plant removes high metals concentrations from acid mine drainage originating at the site and significantly contributes to improving water quality and restoring fish and aquatic life in the Alamosa River and Terrace Reservoir. The treatment plant uses a significant amount of electricity; EPA and the State have been looking to reduce this expense and footprint. While solar is not practical at high elevations, the community solar garden concept intrigued the site team. Parties subscribe to portions of a large solar project and have their utility bills credited as if the panels were located on their roof. An initial 10-kilowatt subscription was entered into for a community solar garden in Antonito, a town 40 miles to the south and located at a much lower elevation. This has worked out so well that the State, the lead agency for the site’s long-term operation and maintenance activities, recently entered into a significantly larger subscription with a new solar array. Construction of the array is underway. When operational, the share of the array dedicated to Summitville will generate up to 1.2-million kilowatt hours of electricity annually, making Summitville Mine the first Superfund site in Region 8 and the first Superfund-lead site in the nation to be powered with electricity generated entirely by photovoltaic technology.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. For additional information click here.

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Uravan Uranium Project (Union Carbide Corp.) Capped Site Reuse Core Infrastructure Reuse

The 700-acre Uravan Uranium Project (Union Carbide Corp.) Superfund site is located in Uravan, Colorado. A radium recovery plant began operating on site in 1912. From the 1940s to 1984, the plant processed uranium and vanadium. Site activities left wastes on site and contaminated soil and groundwater. EPA placed the site, which included the town of Uravan, on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1986. Cleanup involved moving more than 3 million cubic yards of mill wastes and contaminated materials along the San Miguel River to secure repositories on Club Mesa. It also included the removal and cleanup of materials and contaminated soil from a 400-acre area. Remedial crews also dismantled on-site mills and other structures and conducted additional cleanup in Uravan as part of the cleanup. Site cleanup finished in 2008. Today, land use on site consists mostly of fall and winter grazing of beef cattle. Recreation activities – hunting, fishing, camping, rafting – take place near the site; so do limited mine reclamation and exploration drilling efforts. In the future, the potentially responsible party plans to transfer parts of the site to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Legacy Management program for long-term monitoring and maintenance. It is anticipated that the potentially responsible party will transfer other portions of the site for reuse to the Bureau of Land Management and Montrose County.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. For additional information click here.

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Vasquez Boulevard and I-70

A residential property on site, before (left) and after (right) excavation work to remove contaminated soilsVasquez Boulevard and I-70The Vasquez Boulevard and Interstate-70 (VB/I70) Superfund site covers 4.5 square miles in Denver, Colorado. The former Omaha & Grant Smelter and the Argo Smelter operated on site. Smelting operations began as early as 1878 and left contamination in soil and groundwater. EPA added the site to the Superfund program’s National Priorities List (NPL) in July 1999. Cleanup included sampling of over 4,500 residential properties and removal of contaminated soil at about 800 residential properties. Excavated areas were backfilled with clean soil. As part of cleanup efforts, EPA and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment’s Community Health Program helped to provide residents information about health risks. Residents continue to live on site. Ten schools and seven parks remain in use. While the residential cleanups are complete, investigations and additional activities to address contaminated materials at the former smelter locations are ongoing. The former Omaha & Grant Smelter location is today the location of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, Pepsi Bottling Company, the Denver Coliseum and various other commercial and industrial businesses, as well as Globeville Landing Park. The former ARGO smelter location is in a highly industrial/commercial area located at the intersection of Interstate 70 and Interstate 25. EPA is working closely with the State and the City and County of Denver to expedite cleanup activities and support future redevelopment efforts.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2017, EPA had data on 47 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 1,150 people and generated an estimated $167,459,221 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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