Reduced-Form Tools for Calculating PM2.5 Benefits
In situations in which the data needed to specify the BenMAP model is unavailable, reduced-form benefits tools can be used to quantify the expected health impacts of emission or air quality changes. Here we provide three reduced-form tools that enable users to relate changes in the emissions from certain classes of sources of direct or precursor emissions of PM2.5 to monetized health benefits.
- Response Surface Model (RSM)-based Benefit-Per-Ton Estimates - These tables relate changes in directly-emitted PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursors from certain classes of sources to an estimate of the monetized PM2.5-related health benefits. The benefit-per-ton methodology used to derive these values is discussed in Fann, Fulcher and Hubbell (2009).Exit
- Sector-based Benefit-Per-Ton Estimates - These tables relate changes in directly-emitted PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursors from specific industrial sectors to an estimate of the monetized PM2.5-related health benefits. The methodology and values are described in Fann, Baker and Fulcher (2012) Exitand the Technical Support Document Estimating the Benefit per Ton of Reducing PM2.5 Precursors from 17 Sectors.
- Co-Benefits Risk Assessment Screening Model (COBRA) - This as a screening tool that helps U.S. states and localities estimate the health and related economic benefits of changes in emissions of directly-emitted PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursors.