Reduced-Form Tools for Calculating PM2.5 Benefits
In situations in which the data needed to specify the BenMAP model is unavailable, reduced-form benefits tools can be used to quantify the expected health impacts of emission or air quality changes. Here we provide four reduced-form tools that enable users to relate changes in the emissions from certain classes of sources of direct or precursor emissions of PM2.5 to monetized health benefits. We also provide a report comparing the changes in benefits, as well as concentrations where available, from several reduced-form tools as compared to those from full-form photochemcial modeling and BenMAP processing in five specific emissions scenario examples.
- Response Surface Model (RSM)-based Benefit-Per-Ton Estimates - These tables relate changes in directly-emitted PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursors from certain classes of sources to an estimate of the monetized PM2.5-related health benefits. The benefit-per-ton methodology used to derive these values is discussed in Fann, Fulcher and Hubbell (2009).Exit
- Sector-based Benefit-Per-Ton Estimates - These tables relate changes in directly-emitted PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursors from specific industrial sectors to an estimate of the monetized PM2.5-related health benefits. The methodology and values are described in Fann, Baker and Fulcher (2012) Exitand the Technical Support Document Estimating the Benefit per Ton of Reducing PM2.5 Precursors from 17 Sectors.
- Mobile Sector Source Apportionment Modeling and Benefit-Per-Ton Estimates - This page links to the mobile sector source apportionment air quality modeling data underlying the figures presented in Zawacki et al., 2018Exit and the BenMAP-CE input files used to generate the mobile sector benefit-per-ton estimates presented in Wolfe et al., 2018.Exit
- Co-Benefits Risk Assessment Screening Model (COBRA)- This as a screening tool that helps U.S. states and localities estimate the health and related economic benefits of changes in emissions of directly-emitted PM2.5 and PM2.5 precursors.
- Reduced-Form Project Report. This report demonstrates an approach to, and provides results from, an Agency-led project assessing the air pollution-related health impacts and monetized health benefits quantified using reduced-form tools as compared to those estimated using full-form air quality models.