Typical Wastes Generated by Industry Sectors

Many industrial processes have the potential to produce hazardous waste. To help potential hazardous waste generators identify if they produce hazardous waste, EPA provides examples of hazardous wastes that are typically generated by specific industries and provide suggestions for how to recycle, treat or dispose of the wastes according to federal regulations. Only the federal hazardous waste codes are provided here. States might have different codes for some waste streams so generators should check with their state regulatory agencies to find those out.

Additionally, EPA provides suggestions for recycling wastes and implementing pollution prevention activities. Recycling and pollution prevention measures: 

  • Can significantly reduce regulatory burden
  • Have the potential to save businesses money 
  • Construction, Demolition, and Renovation
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes
    Land-Clearing, Wrecking, and Demolition Ignitable or toxic wreckage and debris, and lead pipe D001 (ignitable wreckage and debris), D008 (lead pipe, toxic wreckage and lead-based paint debris), D009 (mercury-containing fluorescent lamps), D023-D026 (toxic wreckage and debris containing cresols)
    Heavy Construction Asphalt wastes, petroleum distillates, and used oil. (Asphalt is widely recycled.) D001 (asphalt wastes, petroleum distillates, used oil sent for disposal), D004 (arsenic), D006-D008 (used oil sent for disposal containing cadmium, chromium, or lead), D018 (asphalt wastes containing benzene)
    Carpentry and Floorwork Acetone, adhesives, coatings, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isobutyl ketone (MIK), mineral spirits, solvents, toluene, treated wood, trichloroethylene, and xylene D001 (acetone, adhesives, coatings, methylene chloride, MEK, MIK, mineral spirits, solvents, trichloroethylene, toluene, xylene), D004 (treated wood), D023-D026, D037 (treated wood), D035 (MEK), D040 (trichloroethylene), F001 or F002 (trichloroethylene, methylene chloride), F003 (acetone, xylene, MIK), F005 (toluene, MEK), U002 (unused acetone), U159 (unused MEK), U161 (unused MIK), U239 (unused xylene), U220 (unused toluene), U080 (unused methylene chloride)
    Paint Preparation and Painting Acetone, chlorobenzene, glazes, methanol, MEK, methylene chloride, paint, petroleum distillates, pigments, solvents, stripping compounds, toluene, and wastewater D001 (acetone, chlorobenzene, glazes, methanol, MEK, methylene chloride, paint, petroleum distillates, solvents, stripping compounds, toluene, wastewater), D007 (chromium pigments), D008 (lead pigments), D021 (chlorobenzene), D035 (MEK), F001 and F002 (chlorobenzene), F003 (acetone, methanol), F005 (MEK, toluene), U002 (unused acetone), U037 (unused chlorobenzene), U159 (unused MEK), U220 (unused toluene)
    Specialty Contracting Activities Acetone, adhesives, coatings, hexachloroethane, kerosene, MEK, MIK, pigments, solvents, toluene, wastewater, and xylene D001 (acetone, adhesives, coatings, MEK, MIK, kerosene, solvents, toluene, wastewater, xylene), D007 (chromium pigments), D008 (lead pigments), D034 (hexachloroethane), D035 (MEK), F003 (acetone, MIK, xylene), F005 (toluene, MEK), U002 (unused acetone), U131 (unused hexachloroethane), U159 (unused MEK), U161 (unused MIK), U220 (unused toluene), U239 (unused xylene)

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the Small Business Guide and the RCRA in Focus publication for this industry.

  • Dry Cleaning
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes Potential Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal Methods Potential Pollution Prevention Methods
    Perc Plants
    (Chemicals Used: Perchloroethylene, also known as tetrachloroethylene)
    Spent Solvents F002 and D039
    • Directly reuse spent solvent without prior reclamation
    • Distill spent solvent to recover pure solvent
    • Ship spent solvent to a hazardous waste TSDF for recovery, treatment, and/or disposal
     
    Perc Plants
    (Chemicals Used: Perchloroethylene, also known as tetrachloroethylene)
    Spent Filter Cartridges F002 and D039
    • Drain filter cartridges well
    • Return recovered solvent t charged solvent tanks or distillation units
    • Store spent filter cartridges and filter (muck) in closed containers
    • Ship spent filter cartridges and muck to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and/or disposal
    • Install filter recovery units
    • Install muck cooker to recover additional solvent
    • Replace cartridge filters with spin disk filters to reduce fugitive emissions
    Perc Plants
    (Chemicals Used: Perchloroethylene, also known as tetrachloroethylene)
    Distillation Residues F002 and D039
    • Distill filtered solvent to remove oils, fats, greases, etc.
    • Accumulate and store distillation residues in closed containers
    • Ship distillation residues to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and/or disposal
    • Vent still condenser offgases to a carbon adsorption unit for additional solvent recovery
    • Regenerate carbon absorber with hot air stripping rather than steam stripping
    Perc Plants
    (Chemicals Used: Perchloroethylene, also known as tetrachloroethylene)
    Cooked Power Residues F002 and D039
    • Heat muck to recover additional solvent
    • Accumulate and store muck cooker residues in closed containers
    • Ship muck cooker residues to a registered hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and/or disposal
    • Vent muck cooker condenser offgases to a carbon adsorption unit for additional solvent recovery
    • Regenerate carbon absorber with hot air stripping rather than steam stripping
    Perc Plants
    (Chemicals Used: Perchloroethylene, also known as tetrachloroethylene)
    Unused Perc D039 and U210
    • Use, reuse, or reclaim unused perc to avoid disposal
    • Send unused perc to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and/or disposal
    • Find a legitimate use for  the unused perc
    • Return unused perc to the distributor
    Non-Perc Plants
    (Chemicals Used: Trichloroethane (TCA) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-133))
    Spent Solvents D039 and U210
    • Use, reuse, or reclaim unused perc to avoid disposal
    • Send unused perc to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and/or disposal
    • Find a legitimate use for  the unused perc
    • Return unused perc to the distributor
    Non-Perc Plants
    (Chemicals Used: Trichloroethane (TCA) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-133))
    Spent Filter Cartridges F002, F005, and D001
    • Drain filter cartridges well
    • Return recovered solvent to charged solvent tanks or distillation units
    • Store spent filter cartridges and filter cakes (muck) in closed containers
    • Ship spent filter cartridges and muck to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and/or disposal
    • Install filter recovery units
    • Replace cartridge filters with spin disk filters to reduce fugitive emissions
    Non-Perc Plants
    (Chemicals Used: Trichloroethane (TCA) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-133))
    Distillation Residues F002, F005, and D001
    • Distill filtered solvent to remove oils, fats, greases, etc.
    • Accumulate and store distillation residues in closed containers
    • Ship distillation residues to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and/or disposal
    Vent still condenser offgases to unvented refrigeration systems for additional solvent recovery
    Petroleum Solvent Plants
    (Chemicals Used: Stoddard's Solvent)
    Spent Solvent D001 Ship spent solvent to a hazardous waste TSDF for recovery, treatment, and/or disposal Use alternative petroleum solvents with a higher flash point or lower volatile organic compounds (VOC) content

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the Small Business Guide and the RCRA in Focus publication for this industry.

  • Educational & Vocational Shops
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes
    Automobile engine and body repair, metalworking, graphic arts-plate preparation, woodworking Ignitable wastes, solvent wastes, acids/bases, paint wastes D001, D002, F001-F005

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the Small Business Guide.

  • Equipment Repair
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes
    Degreasing, equipment cleaning, rust removal, paint preparation, painting, paint removal, spray booth, spray guns, and brush cleaning. Acids/bases, toxic wastes, ignitable wastes, paint wastes, solvents D001, D002, D006, D008, F001-F005

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the Small Business Guide.

  • Furniture Manufacturing and Refinishing
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes Potential Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal Methods Potential Pollution Prevention Methods
    Construction and Surface Preparation Acetone, alcohols, metyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methanol, methylene chloride, mineral spirits, oxalic acid, petroleum distillates, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and xylene D001 (solvent wastes, petroleum distillates, mineral spirits, acetone, and alcohols), D002 (oxalic acid), D035 (methyl ethyl ketone), D040 (1,1,1-trichloroethane), F001 or F002 (1,1,1-trichloroethane), F003 (acetone, xylene, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methanol), F005 (toluene and methyl ethyl ketone), U002 (unused acetone), U159 (unused methyl ethyl ketone), U161 (unused methyl isobutyl ketone), U239 (unused xylene), U220 (unused toluene), and U080 (unused methylene chloride)
    • Reclaim solvents in an onsite distillation unit for reuse
    • Collect hazardous wastes for shipment off site to a hazardous waste TSDF using a registered hazardous waste transporter
    • Store waste solvents separately to facilitate recycling 
    • Replace toxic solvent with less hazardous products
    • Cover solvent containers to prevent product volatilization
    • Use a first in, first out policy in storage areas and computerize inventory control to prevent materials from expiring 
    Staining and Painting Acetone, alcohols, methanol, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, petroleum distillates, pigments, toluene, and VOCs D001 (solvent wastes, petroleum distillates, and acetone), D007 (pigments), D008 (pigments), D035 (methyl ethyl ketone), F003 (acetone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methanol), F005 (toluene and methyl ethyl ketone), U002 (unused acetone), U159 (unused methyl ethyl ketone), U161 (unused methyl isobutyl ketone), and U220 (unused toluene)
    • Reclaim solvents in an onsite distillation unit for reuse
    • Collect hazardous wastes for shipment off site to a hazardous waste TSDF using a registered hazardous waste transporter
    • Store waste solvents separately to facilitate recycling
    • Install biofiltration systems to filter exhaust from spray areas
    • Replace coatings needing solvents with less-hazardous products such as water-borne coatings or waxes
    • Use solvent-based coatings with high levels of solids to reduce air emissions
    • Substitute High-VOC costing with those that harden when exposed to ultraviolet light
    • Install high-volume, low-pressure, or electrostatic sprayers to decrease overspray
    • Replace sprat coating processes with dip processes
    • Cover solvent containers to prevent product volatilization
    • Use washable metal filters in spray booths; reclaim spent washing solvent
    • Collect overspray in a trough for distillation
    Finishing Alcohols, petroleum distillates, pigments, toluene, toluene diisocyanate, VOCs, wastewater, and xylene D001 (alcohols, petroleum distillates, xylene, and toluene diisocyanate), D003 (toluene diisocyanate), D007 (pigments), D008 (pigments), F003 (xylene), F005 (toluene), U223 (unused toluene diisocyanate), U239 (unused xylene), and U220 (unused toluene)
    • Reclaim solvents in an onsite distillation unit for reuse
    • Treat wastewaters in a wastewater treatment unit regulated by the Clean Water Act
    • Collect hazardous wastes for shipment off site to a hazardous waste TSDF using a registered hazardous waste transporter
    • Store waste solvents separately to facilitate recycling
    • Install biofiltration systems to filter exhaust from spray areas
    • Prepare smaller test batches of solvents and coatings
    • Replace finishes needing solvents with less-hazardous products, such as water-borne coatings or waxes
    • Substitute High-VOC costing with those that harden when exposed to ultraviolet light
    • Provide training for spray gun operators in overspray reduction techniques
    • Install high-volume, low-pressure, or electrostatic sprayers to decrease overspray
    • Cover solvent containers to prevent product volatilization
    Brush and Spray Gun Cleaning Acetone, alcohols, isopropanol, methanol, methylene chloride, mineral spirits, petroleum distillates, toluene, and VOCs D001 (solvent wastes, petroleum distillates, isopropanol, mineral spirits, acetone, and alcohols), F003 (acetone), F005 (toluene), U002 (unused acetone), U220 (unused toluene), and U080 (unused methylene chloride)
    • Reclaim solvents in an onsite distillation unit for reuse
    • Collect hazardous wastes for shipment off site to a hazardous waste TSDF using a registered hazardous waste transporter
    • Store waste solvents separately to facilitate recycling 
    • Spray products in large batches to reduce the number of times the gun must be cleaned
    • Immerse only the front end of the spray gun in the solvent to minimize spills
    • Clean spray guns into a container, rather than in to the air
    • Reuse cleanup solvent until spent, then reclaim for further use
    • Cover solvent containers to prevent product volatilization
    • Use a first in, first out policy in storage areas and computerize inventory control to prevent materials from expiring

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the Small Business Guide and the RCRA in Focus publication for this industry.

  • Laboratories
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes
    Diagnostic and other laboratory testing Spent solvents, unused reagents, reaction products, testing samples, contaminated materials D001, D002, D003, F001-F005, U211

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the Small Business Guide.

  • Leather Manufacturing
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes Potential Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal Methods Potential Pollution Prevention Methods
    Soaking High volume of wastewater and suspended solids  D002 (wastewater)
    • Filter rinsewater for reuse in process
    • Reuse suspended solids as ingredients in organic fertilizer
    • Treat wastewaters in a wastewater treatment unit regulator by the Clean Water Act
    • Collect hazardous waste and ship using a registered hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF
    • Use washwater from bating process as rinsewater during soaking to reduce water consumption 
    • Use efficient washing procedures to reduce wastewater generation 
    • Reuse filtered rinse water in soaking process
    • Reuse suspended solids as ingredient in organic fertilizers
    Hair Removal, Deliming, Bating 
    Alkaline wastewater, ammonium sulfate, calcium hydroxide, hydrogen sulfide, suspended
    solids, and toxic sulfides
    D002 (alkaline wastewaters) and D003 (reactive sulfides)
    • Reuse secondary washes in the soaking process
    • Settle out suspended solids for incorporation into fertilizer
    • Destroy sulfides in the lime-sulfide solution and washes by air oxidation with a manganese sulfate catalyst
    • After sulfide destruction, use the lime wastewaters to neutralize acid washes 
    • Collect hazardous water and ship it using a registered hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF
    • Treat wastewaters in a wastewater treatment unit regulated by the Clean Water Act
    • Flesh hides before hair pulping and sell fleshings for rendering 
    • Reuse secondary washes in the soaking process
    • Incorporate settled suspended solids into fertilizer 
     
    Tanning Chromium, acid and alkaline salts, and acids D002 (acid and alkaline salts and acids) and D007 (chromium)
    • Reuse spent chromium as ingredient in pickle solution 
    • Reprocess spent chromium for reuse in tanning process
    • Neutralize acid wastewaters with liming/unhairing/deliming liquors which have first been aerated to treat sulfide
    • Treat wastewaters in a wastewater treatment unit regulated by the Clean Water Act
    • Reuse spent chromium as ingredient in pickle solution
    • Process spent chromium for reuse in tanning process
    • Use tanning splits to maximize efficiency of chromium
    • Manage trivalent chromium to prevent oxidation into hexavalent chromium
    • Maximize equipment efficiency 
     
    Retanning, Dyeing, Fatliquoring  Chromium, kerosene, solvent and dye overspray, solvent still bottoms, toluene, and toxic dyes D001 (kerosene, solvent and dye overspray, solvent still bottoms, and toluene), D007 (chromium), F001-F005 (solvent overspray, solvent still bottoms, and toluene)
    • Reclaim solvents in an onsite distillation unit and reuse on site
    • Reclaim and reuse retanning solutions
    • Collect hazardous waste and ship using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal
    • Use less toxic dyes and coatings
    • Seal solvent to prevent product volatilization
    • Reduce air emissions by thermal drying in a controlled area with solvent recovery systems
    • Reclaim solvents in an onsite distillation unit and reuse on site
    • Reengineer processes to utilize less chemicals 
    • Reclaim and reuse retanning solutions
     
    Buffing Coating 
    Alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, diacetone alcohol), chromium in leather
    dust, esters (ethyl, propyl, and butyl acetates), glycol ethers (butoxyethanol and
    propoxyethanol), ketones (methyl isobutyl ketone, acetone, cyclohexanone, di-isobutyl
    ketone), methyl ethyl ketone, solvent overspray, solvent still bottoms, toluene, volatile organic air emissions and xylene
    D001 (methyl ethyl ketone, solvent overspray, solvent still bottoms, and toluene), D007
    (chromium), D035 (methyl ethyl ketone), and F001- F005 (methyl ethyl ketone, solvent overspray, solvent still bottoms, toluene, and xylene)
    • Capture, recover, and reuse solvent
    • Use trimmings and leather dust from buffing to make reconstituted leather
    • Collect hazardous waste and ship using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal
     
    • Use water-based coatings and lacquer finishes to decrease volatile organic air emissions
    • Prepare smaller test batches of solvents and coatings
    • Install automated spray systems which adjust spray angle for each hide and reduce overspray
    • Cover containers used during spray coating operations to prevent solvent volatilization 
    • Capture, recover, and reuse solvent
    • Store waste solvents separately to facilitate recycling
    • Use trimmings and leather dust from buffing to make reconstituted leather
    Product Storage Chromium, kerosene, methyl ethyl ketone, trichloroethylene, and toluene
    D001 (kerosene, methyl ethyl ketone, trichloroethylene, and toluene), U159 (methyl ethyl
    ketone), U228 (trichloroethylene), and U220 (toluene)
    Collect hazardous waste and ship using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Use a first in, first out policy in storage areas to prevent materials from expiring 
    • Computerize inventory control to prevent materials from expiring 
     

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the Small Business Guide and the RCRA in Focus publication for this industry.

  • Motor Freight and Railroad Transportation
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes Potential Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal Methods Potential Pollution Prevention Methods
    Unloading and Cleaning Tank Trucks and Rail Cars Acid or alkaline cleaners, ethyl benzene, residuals (heels) from shipment of product or hazardous waste, residues from wastewater treatment, spent solvents, volatile organic emissions, and wastewater
    D001 (residuals, solvent wastes), D002 (cleaners, residuals, wastewaters), F003 (ethyl benzene), F and K waste codes (residuals from shipment of F- and K-listed waste), and P and
    U waste codes (residuals from shipment of commercial chemical products)
     
    • Reclaim solvents in an onsite distillation unit for reuse or send for reclamation
    • Reuse wastewater solutions as the first rinse of highly contaminated tanks or cars
    • Sell heels/residuals of commercial chemical products (CCPs) to a reclamation facility
    • Use alkaline heels/residuals to neutralize acids wastes
    • Use detergent CCP heels/residuals in future cleaning operations 
    • Treat aqueous heels/residuals and wastewaters in a wastewater treatment unit regulated by the Clean Water Act
    • Package and label hazardous wastes for shipment using a hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF
     
    • Manage heels/residuals separately from each other to facilitate recycling
    • Switch from washing processes using solvents or caustic solutions to steam cleaning methods, nonhazardous detergents, or aqueous solvents
    • Install a closed washing and rinsing system to recycle wastewaters, reduce water usage, and limit volatile organic air emissions
    • Use suction or vacuum pumps and squeegee the walls of tanks or cars to remove heels/residuals more efficiently and reduce contamination of wastewaters
    • Wash trucks or rail cars more frequently to prevent residue accumulation that could make wash waters hazardous
    • Minimize the amount of water used in washing operations
    • Keep solvent containers covered to prevent product volatilization 
    • Use a first in, first out policy in storage areas and computerize inventory control to prevent materials from expiring
     
    Degreasing, Parts Washing, Rust Removal   Ammonium hydroxide, benzene, chromic acid, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, methylene chloride, mineral spirits, nitric acid, oil or grease, petroleum distillates, phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, rags containing solvents or grease, sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid, toluene, toxic metals, volatile organic constituents, wastewaters, and sludges
    D001 (benzene, methylene chloride, mineral spirits, oil or grease, petroleum distillates,
    toluene, used rags), D002 (ammonium hydroxide, chromic acid, hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid, phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, sodium
    hydroxide, sulfuric acid, wastewaters), D007 (wastewaters, rags, contaminated solvents), D008 (contaminated solvents, rags, wastewaters), D018 (contaminated solvents, wastewaters), F001 or F002 (methylene chloride), and F005 (benzene, toluene)
    • Reclaim solvents in an onsite distillation unit for reuse or contract to have the solvents shipped off site for recycling 
    • Contract state or regional EPA office to determine the status of rags in tour state
    • Treat wastewaters in a wastewater treatment unit regulated by the Clean Water Act
    • Package and label hazardous wastes for shipment using a hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF
     
    • Replace solvent- and caustic-using washers with part washing systems, bake-off ovens, or detergent baths
    • Substitute aqueous solutions for organic solvents
    • Keep vehicles in good repair to prevent oil leaks 
    • Install drip racks over solvent sinks and increase drip time to reduce air emissions
    • Apply solvents with a method other than spraying to avoid air emissions
    • Close solvent containers and keep solvent sinks covered to prevent product volatilization
    • Use dry precleaning methods such as wire brushing
    • Use contaminated washing solutions as prerinse for dirty parts 
     
    Painting Alcohols, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylene chloride, mineral spirits, paint pigments, petroleum distillates, volatile organic compounds, wastewater, and xylene D001 (alcohols, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylene chloride, mineral spirits, petroleum distillates, xylene), D007 (pigments), D008 (pigments), D035 (methyl ethyl ketone), F001 or F002 (methylene chloride), F003 (methyl isobutyl ketone, xylene), and F005 (methyl ethyl ketone, toluene)
    • Reclaim solvents in an onsite distillation unit for reuse or send for reclamation 
    • Treat wastewaters in a wastewater treatment unit regulated by the Clean Water Act
    • Dispose of paint sludges and cleaning wastes from paint stripping operations properly if hazardous solvents or other hazardous stripping materials are used
    • Package and label hazardous wastes for shipment using a hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF
     
    • Prepare smaller test batches of coatings.
    • Use tarps or cloths to prevent paint mists from contaminating air, water, or soil when painting outside.
    • Do not allow paint or paint wastes into your facility's drainage system, unless the system is designed and permitted to treat such wastes.
    • Switch from hazardous organic-based paints to aqueous-based paints.
    • Use all of the paint in a container. Use leftovers as undercoatings or primers.
    • Replace finishes needing solvents with less hazardous products, such as water-borne coating
    • Install biofiltration systems to filter exhaust from spray areas.
    • Provide training for spray gun operators in overspray-reduction techniques.
    • Install high-volume, low-pressure, or electrostatic sprayers to decrease overspray.
    • Replace solvent-based stripping with mechanical methods such as plastic blast media systems.
    • Cover solvent containers to prevent product volatilization.
    • Clean spray guns and equipment frequently for efficient paint transfer.
    • Use solvent-based coatings with high levels of solids to reduce air emissions.
    • Purchase paint in recyclable or returnable containers to reduce disposal costs.
    • Contact a waste exchange program.
    • Follow label directions for shelf-life and storage conditions to avoid having to dispose of unused product.
    Spray Gun, Spray Booth, and Brush Cleaning  Acetone, alcohols, isopropanol, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methylene chloride, mineral spirits, paint pigments, petroleum distillates, toluene, and volatile organic constituents
    D001 (acetone, alcohols, isopropanol, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone,
    methylene chloride, mineral spirits, petroleum distillates, toluene), D007 (pigments), D008
    (pigments), D035 (methyl ethyl ketone), F001 or F002 (methylene chloride), F003 (acetone,
    methanol, methyl isobutyl ketone), and F005 (methyl ethyl ketone, toluene)
    • Reuse cleanup solvent until it is spent, then recycle on site or send out for reclamation.
    • Collect paint containers and residues for recycling.
    • Package and label hazardous wastes for shipment using a hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF.
     
    • Spray paint in large batches to reduce the number of times the gun must be cleaned.
    • To minimize spills, clean spray guns by immersing only the front end in solvent.
    • Clean spray guns by passing solvent through gun and into a container, rather than spraying cleaning solvent into the air.
    • Cover solvent containers to prevent product volatilization.
    • Filter spray booths using washable metal filters instead of disposable filters.
    • Wash spray booth filters for reuse.
    • Catch overspray in a trough for collection and distillation rather than using disposable absorbent material.
    • Use a first in, first out policy in storage areas and computerize inventory control to prevent materials from expiring.
     
    Parts Replacement Batteries (lead acid, nickel cadmium, nickel, iron, carbonate), scrap metal, and used tires D002 (battery acid), D006 (cadmium), and D008 (lead)
    • Sell scrap metal to a recycling facility.
    • Collect batteries for reclamation.
    • Have scrap tires retreaded or send for recycling.
    • Recycle batteries on site, through the supplier, or at a local recycling facility.
    • Package and label hazardous wastes for shipment using a hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF.
    • To facilitate battery recycling, sort and label batteries, store in a manner that protects the batteries and prevents leaks, and inspect for leaking batteries.
    • Protect batteries from the weather with tarp, roof, or other means.
    • Store batteries in an open rack or water-tight secondary containment unit to prevent leaks.
    • Neutralize acid spills and dispose of resulting waste as hazardous waste if it still exhibits a characteristic of hazardous waste.
    • Use longer-life batteries.
    • Store scrap metal under cover to prevent run-off of oil and grease during outdoor storage.
    • Rebuild scrap parts for reuse. 
    Maintenance and Fluid Replacement  Fluids contaminated with heavy metals, radiator flushing solutions, used oil, and used oil filters D002 (flushing solution), D008 (contaminated fluids), and D018 (contaminated fluids)
    • Drain oil filters carefully and collect and dispose of the oil properly.
    • Manage used oils that have been mixed with listed hazardous waste as a hazardous waste.
    • Reuse radiator flushing fluid.
    • Collect used oil and automotive fluids for recycling.
    • Package and label hazardous wastes for shipment using a hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF.
     
    • Avoid mixing used oil with hazardous waste or material that would prevent recycling of the oil.
    • Use a drip pan when dealing with used oil.
    • Transfer drip pan contents to containers as soon as practical to prevent air emissions and spills.
    • Avoid allowing used oil or oil drips to enter your drainage system unless an oil-water separation system is in place or specific arrangements have been made with the local sewer utility.
    • Use absorbent materials (e.g., pigmat) to catch drips or spills during activities where oil drips might occur.
    • Use track pans, absorbent materials, or other collection devices under an idling locomotive.
    • Label and cover all drums or containers with used oil or oil filters that are exposed to storm water.
    • Discharge coolant when the locomotive has stopped and is at a location where the coolant can be collected and managed, when possible, to minimize contamination of soil and water.
    • Avoid discharging coolant when locomotive is crossing open water or traveling adjacent to open water, to minimize aesthetic degradation of water.
    • Switch to a radiator fluid that is amenable to recycling.
    • Avoid mixing locomotive coolant with antifreeze that will be recycled.
    • Use brake fluid, transmission fluid, and other fluids that do not contain chlorinated hydrocarbons.
    • Use a first in, first out policy in storage areas and computerize inventory control to prevent materials from expiring. 
    Storage of Cleaning Chemicals 
    Acetone, hydrofluoric acid, methanol, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl
    isobutyl ketone, mineral spirits, toluene, and xylene
    D001 (acetone, methanol, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, mineral spirits, toluene, xylene), U002 (unused acetone), U080 (unused methylene chloride), U134 (unused hydrofluoric acid), U154 (unused methanol), U159 (unused methyl ethyl ketone), U161 (unused methyl isobutyl ketone), U220 (unused toluene), and U239 (unused xylene)
    • Collect spilled or off-specification commercial chemical products for reclamation.
    • Package and label hazardous wastes for shipment using a hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF.
    • Install curbs around hazardous product storage areas to contain leaks.
    • Minimize storage quantities.
    • Inspect storage areas to catch leaks while manageable.
    • Use a first in, first out policy in storage areas and computerize inventory control to prevent materials from expiring.

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the full RCRA In Focus publication for this industry.

  • Pesticide End Users and Application Services
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes
    Pesticide application and cleanup Used/unused pesticides, solvent wastes, ignitable wastes, contaminated soil (from spills), contaminated rinsewater, empty containers D001, F001-F005, U129, U136, P094, P123

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the Small Business Guide.

  • Photo Processing
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes Potential Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal Methods Potential Pollution Prevention Methods
    Processing and Developing Negatives and Prints 
    (including bleach-fix, untreated tires, beach-fixers, reversal bleaches used in plumbingless minilabs, reversal bleaches, and system cleaners)
    Silver D011
    • Recover silver through metallic replacement, electrolytic recovery, or precipitation.
    • Send silver recovery residuals to a silver refiner via commercial recycler or common carrier (in states that allow it).
    • Ship silver waste, using a registered hazardous waste transporter, to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Discharge spent fixers (within allowable discharge limits) to a sewer system pursuant to a Clean Water Act permit.
    • Follow manufacturers' recommendations for pH levels and stop bath use.
    • Replenish the strength of the fixer by adding ammonium thiosulfate when necessary.
    • Keep fixer covered when not being used to prevent oxidation and minimize emissions.
    • Use floating covers on solution tanks.
    • Add ammonium thiosulfate to silver contaminated baths to extend the allowable buildup of silver.
    Washing Silver D011
    • Recover silver through ion exchanges.
    • Send silver recovery residuals to a silver refiner via commercial recycler or common carrier (in states that allow it).
    • Ship silver waste, using a registered hazardous waste transporter, to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal
    • Discharge post-fix wastewaters (within allowable discharge limits) to a sewer system pursuant a to Clean Water Act permit.
    • Improve the efficiency of the wash bath by keeping the water at 80 °F, add ammonia to keep pH above 4.9, and add washing aids (salts). (Adding ammonia to adjust pH can result in local noncompliance for ammonia nitrogen pretreatment discharge limits.)
    • If an ion exchange system is used, recirculate the effluent from the unit.
    • Employ countercurrent (using water from previous rinsings in initial film washing stage) rather than parallel rinse techniques.
    • Collect wash water and reuse. 
     
    Stabilizing Silver D011
    • Recover silver through metallic replacement, electrolytic recovery, precipitation, or evaporation.
    • Send silver recovery residuals to a silver refiner via commercial recycler or common carrier (in states that allow it).
    • Ship silver waste, using a registered hazardous waste transporter, to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Use floating covers on solution tanks.
    • Use squeegees to minimize chemical carryover.       
    System Cleaning
    Acid regenerates, system cleaners, and photographic activators (D002), dichromate based
    Cleaners
    D002 (acid regenerates, system cleaners, photographic activators) and D007 (dichromate)
    • Neutralize waste and discharge it to a sewer system pursuant to a Clean Water Act permit.
    • Send waste to a hazardous waste TSDF for neutralization and/or disposal.
     
    Collect cleaners and reuse them.
    Storing Products Off-specification chemicals that are RCRA hazardous for corrosivity or ignitability D002 (chemicals hazardous for corrosivity) or D001 (chemicals hazardous for ignitability)
    • Dispose of hazardous off-specification chemicals by sending them to a hazardous waste TSDF.
    • Recycle unused commercial chemical products. 
    • Exercise inventory control to avoid disposal of off-specification film and chemicals.
    • Store unused chemicals and paper away from heat and light.

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the Small Business Guide and the RCRA in Focus publication for this industry.

  • Printing
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes Potential Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal Methods Potential Pollution Prevention Methods
    Using Ink in Lithography, Letterpress, Screen Printing, Flexography, and Gravure 

    Waste ink with chromium, barium, and lead content; and waste ink contaminated with cleaning solvents, such as trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2,3-trifluoroethane, chlorobenzene, xylene, acetone, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), toluene, carbon disulfide, or benzene

    D005 (barium), D007 (chromium), D008 (lead), F001 to F005 (listed solvents), D001(ignitable waste), D018 (benzene), D019 (carbon tetrachloride), D021 (chlorobenzene), and D040 (trichloroethylene)

    • Recycle inks to make black ink. Reformulated black ink is comparable to lower quality new black inks such as newspaper ink.
    • Dispose of inks by sending them to a fuel blending service that combines these and other wastes for burning at industrial boilers or kilns.
    • Ship waste using a registered hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF.
    • Dedicate presses to specific colors or special inks to decrease the number of cleanings required for each press.
    • Clean ink fountains only when changing colors or when there is a risk of ink drying.
    • Run similar jobs simultaneously to reduce waste volume.
    • Isolate inks contaminated with hazardous cleanup solvents from noncontaminated inks.
    • Use organic solvent alternatives wherever possible, such as detergent or soap, nonhazardous blanket washes, and less toxic acetic acid solvents.
    Plate Processing

    Acid plate etching chemicals for metallic lithographic plates, and flexographic photopolymer plates

    D002 (corrosive waste), F002 (perchloroethylene), and F003 (butynol)
    • Neutralize waste acid on site in an exempt elementary neutralization unit.
    • Ship waste using a registered hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Replace metal etching process with nonhazardous alternative.
    • Check with your state about the use of alternative plate solvents that may or may not be considered hazardous.
    Cleaning Printing Equipment   

    Spent organic solvents might include trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, 1,1,1- trichloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2,3-trifluoroethane, chlorobenzene, xylene, acetone, methanol, MEK, toluene, carbon disulfide, or benzene

    F001 to F005 (listed solvents), D001 (ignitable waste), D018 (benzene), D019 (carbon tetrachloride), D021 (chlorobenzene), D040 (trichloroethylene), D005 (barium), D007 (chromium), D008 (lead), D018 (benzene), and D019 (carbon tetrachloride)

    • Find a legitimate reuse for spent solvents on site. If reused, the solvents are not considered to be wastes and, therefore, are not regulated. Examples include reusing solvents in a parts-cleaning unit that is used to clean dirty press parts.
    • Dispose of solvents by sending them to a fuel blending service, which combines these and other wastes for burning at industrial boilers or kilns.
    • Recycle spent solvents in an onsite solvent still.
    • Contract with a solvent recycler or supplier to take the spent solvent away and replace it with fresh solvent.
    • Ship waste using a registered hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF. Most solvents will be recycled or incinerated.
    • Appropriate management techniques for rags and disposable wipers contaminated with solvents are at the discretion of your state or EPA regional office. A wide variety of options are available including sending them to laundry services after wringing out excess solvent, disposing of them as hazardous waste, treating them to recover the solvents, or incinerating them as hazardous waste. To obtain your appropriate state or regional contact, call the RCRA Hotline at 800 424-9346.
    • Print lighter colors first.
    • Squeegee or wipe surfaces clean before washing with solvent.
    • Dedicate presses to specific colors or special inks to decrease the number of cleanings required for each press.
    • Run similar jobs simultaneously to reduce cleanup waste volume.
    • Use organic solvent alternatives wherever possible, such as detergent or soap, nonhazardous blanket washes, and less toxic acetic acid solvents.
    Developing Negatives and Prints 

    Waste photochemical solutions from fixer and rinsewater and from alkaline or acid process baths

    D011 (silver) and D002 (corrosive waste)
    • Ship silver waste using a registered hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF.
    • Recover silver from fixing baths using chemical recovery cartridges, electrolytic recovery cells, or ion exchange resins, and have a commercial recycler pick it up.
    • Neutralize waste on site in an exempt elementary neutralization unit.
    • Eliminate silver waste by using silver-free films such as vasicular, diazo, electrostatic, and photopolymer.
    • Add ammonium thiosulfate to silver-contaminated baths to extend the allowable buildup of silver.
    • Use an acid stop bath prior to fixing bath to reduce effect of alkaline developer on fixing bath pH.
    • Install waterless paper and film developing units to reduce volume of fixer waste.
    • Employ countercurrent (using water from previous rinsings in initial film washing stage) rather than parallel rinse techniques.
    • Containerize process baths to keep them from spoiling.
    Printing Processes   Unused inks, solvents, and other chemicals used in printing industry

    D001, D002, U002 (acetone), U019 (benzene), U211 and D019 (carbon tetrachloride), U055 (cumene), U056 (cyclohexane), U069 (dibutyl phthalate), U112 (ethyl acetate), U259 (ethanol, 2-ethoxy), U359 (ethylene glycol monoethyl ether), U122 (formaldehyde), U154 (methanol), U226 (methyl chloroform), U080 (methylene chloride), U159 and D035 (MEK), U161 (methyl isobutyl ketone), U210 and D039 (tetrachloroethylene), U220 (toluene), U223 (toluene diisocyanate), U228 and D040 (trichloroethylene), U043 and D043 (vinyl chloride), and U239 (xylene)

    • Neutralize corrosive wastes on site in an exempt elementary neutralization unit.
    • Find a legitimate reuse for unused chemicals on site. If legitimately reused, the chemicals are not considered to be waste. Examples include using solvents to clean dirty press parts.
    • Dispose of organics with high fuel value by sending them to a fuel blending service, which combines these and other wastes for burning at industrial boilers or kilns.
    • Ship waste using a registered hazardous waste transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF. Most organics will be incinerated.

    Instigate inventory controls to avoid overstocking on inks, solvents, and other printing chemicals.

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the Small Business Guide and the RCRA in Focus publication for this industry.

  • Textile Manufacturing
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes Potential Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal Methods Potential Pollution Prevention Methods
    Bleaching  

    Hydrogen peroxide, sodium silicate, and organic stabilizer

    D002 (hydrogen peroxide)

    • Treat waste in an elementary neutralization unit.
    • hazardous waste and ship to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.

    Use least-toxic bleach solutions.

    Mercerizing  

    Alkali and sodium hydroxide.

    D002 (alkali and sodium hydroxide), if disposing of contaminated raw materials.
    • Treat waste in an elementary neutralization unit.
    • Collect hazardous waste and ship to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Use least-toxic bleach solutions.
    • Maximize equipment efficiency.
    Equipment Maintenance   

    Tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, chlorobenzene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene, xylene, ethylene dichloride, isopropyl alcohol, and mineral spirits (naptha)

    D001 (isopropyl alcohol and mineral spirits), D018 (benzene), D021 (chlorobenzene), D035 (methyl ethyl ketone), D039 (tetrachloroethylene), D040 (trichloroethylene), F001- F005 (benzene, chlorobenzene, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, toluene, xylene), U019 (benzene), U037 (chlorobenzene), U077 (ethylene dichloride), U080 (methylene chloride), U159 (methyl ethyl ketone), U210 (Tetrachloroethylene), U220 (toluene), U228 (trichloroethylene) and U239 (xylene)

    • Reclaim used solvents on site or contract with a recycling facility.
    • Reuse solvents.
    • Collect hazardous waste and ship it using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Treat wastewaters in a wastewater treatment unit regulated by the Clean Water Act.
    • Don't overclean materials.
    • Use as little solvent as necessary.
    • Keep solvent containers sealed when possible to prevent volatilization and reduce emissions.
    • Substitute less-hazardous or nonhazardous solvents.

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the full RCRA In Focus publication for this industry.

  • Vehicle Maintenance
    Activity Wastes Generated Possible RCRA Waste Codes Potential Recycling, Treatment, and Disposal Methods Potential Pollution Prevention Methods
    Air Conditioner Maintenance  

    Dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12)

    U075 (if unused)

    None

    Reclaim spent CFCs.

    Battery Replacement

    Lead dross, zinc, copper, and spent sulfuric acid

    D002 and D008
    • Arrange for spent battery collection and recycling.
    • Ship waste using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.

    Install longer life batteries.

    Body Repair and Refinishing

    Scrap metal

    D006, D007, and D008

    • Send parts to be rebuilt or recycled as scrap metal.
    • Sweep or vacuum dust for proper disposal.

    None

    Car Washing  

    Methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, aromatic, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    D001, F002, D040, U080, and U228

    • Filter and reuse wastewaters.
    • Collect wastewaters and ship off site using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Pretreat (if necessary) and discharge wastewaters following Clean Air Act requirements.

    Use a grit separator before discharging wastewaters.

    Oil and Fluid Replacement

    Used oil, oil filters, and fuel filters contaminated with cadmium, chromium, lead, benzopyrene; ethylene glycol (antifreeze) contaminated with lead; petroleum distillates; and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    D001, D006, D007, and D008

    • Store fluids separately to make it easier to recycle.
    • Recycle used oil and antifreeze.
    • Recycle drained oil filters and fuel filters as scrap metal.
    • Ship hazardous waste using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Use drip pans to prevent contamination of the floor and subsequent floor-cleaning solutions.
    • Use a long-lasting, high-performance oil that needs less frequent changing.
    • Use fluids (e.g., brake, transmission, etc.) that do not contain chlorinated hydrocarbons.
    Tire Replacement

    Scrap tires

    None

    • Ship scrap tires using a registered hauler to a scrap tire processor, such as a licensed energy recovery facility, or a reuse, retreading or recycling facility.
    • Ship scrap tires using an appropriate hauler to a permitted, nonhazardous waste landfill.
    • Be sure the landfill accepts tires.

    None

    Rustproofing, Painting, and Paint Removal;

    Spent halogenated and nonhalogenated solvents such as acetone, toluene, benzene,xylene, methanol, methylene chloride, isopropyl alcohol; waste paint thinner and paint; paint filters; and spent rags and wipes

    D001, D035, F002, and F003

    • Keep waste paint and paint sludge separate from waste thinner.
    • Collect rustproofing drippage and dispose of properly.
    • Collect hazardous waste and ship it using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Reclaim solvents and paint thinners on site (small stills are available in a variety of volumes), or send for recycling.
    • Give leftover paint to the customer.
    • Use recyclable paint filters.
    • Use mechanical paint stripping methods such as plastic blast media instead of solvents.
    • Use high transfer efficiency equipment (e.g., equipment with a low over-spray) to reduce air emissions.
    • Replace chlorinated solvents with nonchlorinated products.
    • Use water-based paint when possible (the number of less hazardous paint choices is increasing).
    Parts Washing and Degreasing

    Benzene, phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, sodium hydroxide, heavy metals, petroleum distillates, and spent rags and wipes

    D001, D002, D018, D008, and F001

    • Ship hazardous waste using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Reclaim used solvents on site, or contract with a recycling facility.
    • Reuse solvents; for example, rinse with used solvent followed by a small amount of fresh solvent.
    • Don't over-clean parts and use as little solvent as necessary.
    • Keep solvent containers sealed when possible to prevent volatilization and reduce emissions.
    • Use a self-contained recirculating solvent sink. Contract with a solvent service company to take sludges and used solvent and maintain the sink.
    • Substitute aqueous or alkaline cleaners instead of hazardous solvents.
    • Use steam cleaners, heat baths, or high-pressure washing units instead of units using solvents. These methods can also be used to preclean, lessening solvent use and contamination.
    • Preclean parts with dry rags or brushes to limit use and contamination of solvents, then reuse rags and solvents.
    • Install a drip rack over cleaning tanks to confine drips to the cleaning process.
    • Allow more drainage time.
    • Skim off petroleum contaminants and reuse rinse waters.
    Product Storage and Storage Tank Cleaning      

    Various solvents and petroleum products potentially outdated or off-specification

    D001 and F001

    • Ship off-specification and outdated products using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Reclaim/reuse off specification products.
    • Use a first in, first out policy in storage areas to prevent materials from becoming outdated.
    • Computerize inventory control.
    • Routinely inspect storage areas.
    • Comply with UST design standards and monitoring to prevent leaks.
    Radiator Repair      

    Zinc chloride (coolant), chlorinated solvents, and lead solder

    D001, D002, D008, and F002

    • Collect and reclaim solvents. Store them separately, do not contaminate.
    • Ship hazardous waste using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Adjust process to reduce solvent use (e.g., use compressed air to blow out residual alkaline solution after removing from boil-out tank, then collect and return to tank).
    • Employ lead-free or reduced lead solder.
    • Use a recyclable type of radiator fluid and collect flushing liquid for reuse.
    Shop Cleanup

    Used oil and drain or sump sludges contaminated with metals, petroleum, solvents, and spent rags and wipes

    D001, D002, D008, and F002

    • Properly store wastes in hazardous waste accumulation tanks or containers.
    • Ship hazardous waste using a registered transporter to a hazardous waste TSDF for treatment and disposal.
    • Use good housekeeping practices to prevent contaminants from reaching the floor (drip pans, worker training and incentives, proper containers for wastes).
    • Use less hazardous cleaners (biodegradable when possible).
    • Do not use solvents for cleaning floors.
    • Avoid disposing of partially used rags or absorbents. Use them to their limit.

    More information on the regulations and this industry can be found in the Small Business Guide and the RCRA in Focus publication for this industry.