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Safer Choice

Reports and Publications of the Design for the Environment and Safer Choice Program

Most Safer Choice publications are available online. Please see below for the complete list of publications as part of alternatives assessment, life-cycle assessment, and safer products partnerships.

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Alternatives Assessment Publications

Methodology

Alternatives Assessment Methodology
The Design for the Environment Alternatives Assessment Methodology consists of seven steps, ranging from stakeholder outreach to hazard assessments.

Alternatives Assessment Criteria for Hazard Evaluation
In addition, the Alternatives Assessment Criteria for Hazard Evaluation provides a more detailed look at the methodology and considerations behind a DfE Alternatives Assessment.

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Bisphenol A Alternatives in Thermal Paper

Bisphenol A Alternatives in Thermal Paper: Final Report
January 2014, 519 pages
This report contains a summary of the environmental and human health attributes of alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA) in thermal paper.

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Flame Retardant Alternatives to Decabromodiphenyl Ether (DecaBDE)

Flame Retardant Alternatives to DecaBDE: Final Report
January 2014, 901 pages
This report contains a summary of the environmental and human health attributes of flame retardant alternatives to decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE).

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Flame Retardant Alternatives to Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)

Flame Retardant Alternatives to HBCD: Final Report
June 2014, 230 pages
This report contains a summary of the environmental and human health attributes of flame retardant alternatives to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD).

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Flame Retardants in Printed Circuit Boards

PARTNERSHIP REPORTS

Design for the Environment: Partnership to Evaluate Flame Retardants in Printed Circuit Boards
November 2008, 273 pages
This report contains a summary of the environmental and human health attributes of selected flame retardants used in printed circuit boards.

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Flame Retardants in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

Environmentally Preferable Approaches for Achieving Furniture Fire Safety Standards
(EPA/744-F-04-002)
September 2004, pamphlet
This pamphlet provides an overview of the Furniture Flame Retardancy Partnership, describing key players and project goals.

Flame-Retardant Alternatives for Furniture Foam Fact Sheet
(EPA/742-F-05-001)
September 2005, 2 pages
This fact sheet provides an overview of the Furniture Flame Retardancy Partnership's report on flame retardants in furniture foam as alternatives to pentaBDE.

Environmental Profiles of Chemical Flame-Retardant Alternatives for Low-Density Polyurethane Foam
(EPA/742-R-05-002A and B)
September 2005, 153 pages (Volume 1) and 393 pages (Volume 2: Appendices)
This alternatives assessment provides environmental and human health attributes for flame retardants in furniture foam as alternatives to pentaBDE.
Please note: As of April 7, 2006, only Volume 1 is available from NSCEP.

Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam: An Update
(EPA/744-D-14-001)
February 2014, 201 pages
This draft final updated alternatives assessment supplements the previous 2005 alternatives assessment report. The report identifies flame retardant chemicals used to meet fire safety requirements for upholstered consumer products containing flexible polyurethane foam, and updates flame retardant health and environmental profiles from the previous report with new information.

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Nonylphenol Ethoxylates

Alternatives Assessment for Nonylphenol Ethoxylates: Final Report
May 2012, 27 pages
This alternatives assessment provides environmental and human health attributes for alternatives to nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants.

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Life-Cycle Assessment Publications

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Computer Display Publications

PROJECT FACT SHEET

Design for the Environment Computer Display Project Fact Sheet
(EPA/744-F98-010)
August 1998, 2 pages
This fact sheet provides basic information about the Computer Display Project. It explains the EPA partnership with the industry, examines the nature and goals of the project, and provides an overview of work conducted by the project team, including a Life-Cycle Assessment study.

TECHNICAL REPORTS

Life-Cycle Assessment of Desktop Computer Displays: Summary of Results
(EPA/744-R-01-005)
March 2002, 40 pages
Summarizes the results of an evaluation of the environmental impacts of desktop computer displays using cathode ray tube and liquid crystal display technologies.

Desktop Computer Displays: A Life-Cycle Assessment
(EPA/744-R-01-004A and B [Appendices])
December 2001, 995 pages
This study is designed to provide the electronics industry with information needed to improve the environmental attributes of desktop computer displays. The evaluation considers impacts related to material consumption, energy, air resources, water resources, landfills, human toxicity, and ecological toxicity. It is intended to provide valuable data not previously published, and an opportunity to use the model developed for this project in future improvement evaluations that consider life-cycle impacts. It will also provide the industry and consumers with valuable information to make environmentally informed decisions regarding display technologies, and enable them to consider the relative environmental merits of a technology along with its performance and cost.

Computer Display Industry and Technology Profile
(EPA/744-R-98-005)
December 1998, 71 pages
This report contains an overview of the cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) computer monitor markets, and explains the basic operation and manufacturing of CRTs and thin-film transistor LCDs.

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Lead-Free Solder Publications

PROJECT FACT SHEET

Solders in Electronics: A Life-Cycle Assessment Fact Sheet
(EPA/744-F-05-003)
August 2005, 2 pages
This fact sheet provides basic information about the Lead-Free Solder Partnership. It explains the nature and goals of the partnership, and provides an overview of the work conducted by the project team, including a Life-Cycle Assessment of tin-lead and lead-free solders used in the electronics industry.

Solders in Electronics: A Life-Cycle Assessment Summary
(EPA/744-S-05-001)
August 2005, 51 pages
This document summarizes the results of the life-cycle evaluation of the environmental impacts of selected lead-free solders as alternatives to tin-lead solder used in electronics. Life-cycle impacts related to material consumption, energy use, air resources, water resources, landfills, human toxicity, and ecological toxicity were assessed.

Solders in Electronics: A Life-Cycle Assessment
(EPA/744-R-05-001)
August 2005, 338 pages + Appendices
This life-cycle assessment evaluated the potential environmental impacts of selected lead-free solders as alternatives to tin-lead solder. Life-cycle impacts related to material consumption, energy use, air resources, water resources, landfills, human toxicity, and ecological toxicity were assessed.

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Partnership for "Application of Life-Cycle Assessment to Nanoscale Technology: Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles"

TECHNICAL DOCUMENT

Application of Life-Cycle Assessment to Nanoscale Technology: Lithium-ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles
(EPA/744-R-12-001)
April 2013, 126 pages
This report presents the results of the life-cycle evaluation of lithium-ion batteries used in plug-in electric and electric vehicles. The study also assessed single-walled carbon nanotube anode nanotechnology for use in next-generation Li-ion batteries. Life-cycle impacts related to energy use, green-house gas emissions, material consumption, air and water resources, human toxicity, and ecological toxicity were assessed.

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Wire & Cable Publications

FACT SHEET

Assessing Life-Cycle Impacts in the Wire & Cable Industry: a Factsheet
(EPA/744-F-05-004)
August 2005, 2 pages
This fact sheet provides basic information about the Wire & Cable Partnership. It explains the nature and goals of the partnership, and provides an overview of the work conducted by the project team, including a life-cycle assessment of materials used in insulation and jacketing for selected wire and cable products.

TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS

Wire and Cable Insulation and Jacketing: Life-Cycle Assessments for Selected Applications - Summary
(EPA/744-S-08-001)
June 2008, 47 pages
This document summarizes the results of the life-cycle evaluation of resin systems with alternative heat stabilizer formulations used in Category 6, riser-rated communication cable (CMR); Category 6, plenum-rated communication cable (CMP); and non-metallic-sheathed low-voltage cable (NM-B). Life-cycle impacts related to energy use, material consumption, air resources, water resources, landfills, human toxicity, and ecological toxicity were assessed.

Wire and Cable Insulation and Jacketing: Life-Cycle Assessments for Selected Applications
(EPA/744-R-08-001)
June 2008, 311 pages
This report presents the results of the life-cycle evaluation of resin systems with alternative heat stabilizer formulations used in Category 6, riser-rated communication cable (CMR); Category 6, plenum-rated communication cable (CMP); and non-metallic-sheathed low-voltage cable (NM-B). Life-cycle impacts related to energy use, material consumption, air resources, water resources, landfills, human toxicity, and ecological toxicity were assessed.

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