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Superfund Sites in Reuse in South Carolina

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Arkwright Dump Core Infrastructure Reuse

The 30-acre Arkwright Dump site is located just south of Spartanburg, South Carolina. The City of Spartanburg operated a municipal landfill on site starting in the 1950s. The landfill accepted municipal, medical and automotive wastes. The City closed the landfill in 1972 and covered the buried wastes with soil. In 1976, the City sold the landfill property to a private citizen. The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control discovered site contamination in 1998. EPA conducted a site investigation in 1999. The investigation found that site wastes had contaminated soils, groundwater, surface water and sediment. In May 1999, EPA connected two residential wells to the Spartanburg municipal water supply. Additional cleanup included a flexible, membrane-lined cap to contain landfill wastes and groundwater treatment. Following cleanup, the 30-acre property will soon host 12,000 solar panels that will bring jobs and a source of clean energy to power almost 500 neighborhood homes.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. For additional information click here.

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Atlantic Phosphate Works Core Infrastructure Reuse

The 30-acre Atlantic Phosphate Works Superfund site is located in Charleston, South Carolina. Phosphate fertilizer manufacturing took place at the site from 1900 to 1943. Manufacturing operators produced sulfuric acid. Lead-insulated chambers held the acid. In the late 1990s, investigators determined that site activities had contaminated soil, sediment and groundwater with lead and arsenic. While ExxonMobil never owned or operated facilities at the site, the company accepted responsibility for cleanup by way of a corporate merger in 1999. EPA’s 2004 cleanup removed, treated and capped contaminated soil, and treated groundwater. Groundwater monitoring is ongoing. South Carolina Electric & Gas (SCE&G) currently operates the 100-megawatt Hagood Steam Plant at the site. The plant provides energy during periods of high electricity demand and storm emergencies. In 2008, SCE&G installed two new gas turbines at the plant.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on one on-site business. EPA did not have further economic details related to this business. For additional information click here.

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Burlington Industries Cheraw

The Burlington Industries Cheraw Superfund site is located in Cheraw, South Carolina. Textile manufacturing facilities have been active on site since the 1960s. Facility operations contaminated groundwater, sediment, soil and surface water. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 2018. Site investigations and cleanup are ongoing. An active textile manufacturing plant is located on site.
Last updated September 2018

As of December 2018, EPA had data on 7 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 468 people and generated an estimated $80,588,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Calhoun Park Area Capped Site Reuse Core Infrastructure Reuse Cultural/Historical Reuse

The South Carolina Aquarium is situated behind the site's public greenspaceCalhoun Park AreaThe Calhoun Park Area Superfund site is located on the east side of the Charleston peninsula in Charleston, South Carolina. A manufactured gas plant (MGP) operated on site. The heating process, used at the MGP to separate the flammable gas from coal or oil, produced liquid coal tar waste. In 1991, EPA and state investigations found that MGP plant operations had contaminated soil, sediment and groundwater. EPA, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC DHEC) and the site’s potentially responsible party, South Carolina Electric & Gas (SCE&G), worked together to clean up the site. The cleanup protected public health and the environment while also making redevelopment possible. Cleanup activities included removal of contaminated soil, groundwater treatment and sediment capping in the Cooper River, as well as non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) removal on the SCE&G substation property and groundwater monitoring. Stakeholder cooperation resulted in the successful redevelopment of the site and the entire shoreline. Today, the area is home to a 1,100-space city parking garage, Charlotte Park and open green space for community events. The South Carolina Aquarium, commercial buildings, the Fort Sumter Visitor Education Center and ferry terminal are also located on site. SCE&G owns and operates an electrical substation at the site, which provides electricity to most of downtown Charleston. Future site uses include a senior housing development, Gadsenborough Park and the International African American Museum.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on 36 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 262 people and generated an estimated $34,720,899 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Carolawn, Inc.

The 60-acre Carolawn, Inc. Superfund site is located in Fort Lawn, South Carolina. Between 1970 and 1979, a solvent waste storage facility and a waste storage, treatment and disposal facility operated at the site. The property owner abandoned the site in 1980. Leaking tanks, drums of hazardous waste and lagoons filled with sludge remained on site. Investigations found that site activities had contaminated soil and groundwater with hazardous chemicals. Between 1981 and 1982, EPA took away drums of hazardous waste and several tons of contaminated soil. In 1983, EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL). Soil vapor extraction currently addresses remaining soil and groundwater contamination. A hunting club is located on the site.
Last updated September 2018

As of December 2018, EPA had data on one on-site business. This business employed 30 people and generated an estimated $32,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Elmore Waste Disposal

The 8-acre Elmore Waste Disposal Superfund site is located in Greer, South Carolina. Drum disposal took place on site from 1975 to 1977. Waste handling practices contaminated soil and groundwater with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). EPA placed the site on the Superfund program’s National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. To clean up the site, EPA and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control removed 5,500 tons of contaminated soil and 16,800 pounds of liquid wastes. In addition, an estimated 74 million gallons of VOC-contaminated groundwater has been pumped from the ground and treated on site. In the fall of 2016 and the spring of 2017, EPA treated two VOC source areas with in-situ chemical oxidation. Commercial and residential land uses are located on site. A laundromat operates on part of the site.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on one on-site business. This business employed one person and generated an estimated $185,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Geiger (C & M Oil)

Sign at entrance of Pile Drivers. The small green sign indicates that the area is a Certified Wildlife HabitatGeiger (C & M Oil)The 1.5-acre Geiger (C & M Oil) Superfund site is located in Hollywood, South Carolina, 10 miles west of Charleston. From 1969 to 1974, Adams Run Services incinerated waste oil at the site and stored waste oil in eight unlined lagoons. A 1980 EPA investigation found that site operations had contaminated soil and groundwater with volatile organic compounds, lead and chromium. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1984. Cleanup activities included the extraction and treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater. EPA updated the site’s remedy in 1993 and 1998. The updates removed on-site treatment of contaminated soil from cleanup activities and changed the groundwater cleanup strategy to monitor the natural breakdown of contamination. Construction of the site’s final remedy finished in 1998. EPA’s cleanup plan allowed for the continued use of the site throughout cleanup activities. Pile Drivers, a construction subcontracting business, has operated an equipment storage area on site since 1983.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on one on-site business. EPA did not have further economic details related to this business. For additional information click here.

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Golden Strip Septic Tank Service Athletic Fields Reuse Capped Site Reuse

The Golden Strip Septic Tank Superfund site is located on a 55-acre parcel near Simpsonville, South Carolina. An industrial/septic waste hauling and disposal service operated on site from 1960 to 1975. During that time, wastes discharged into five lagoons, contaminating surrounding soils. In 1987, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL). EPA's remedy, selected in 1991, included digging up and stabilizing contaminated soil and sludge in an on-site landfill. In 1996, parties capped the landfill with clean soil and a vegetative cover. In 1998, EPA took the site off the NPL. Restrictions limit land and groundwater use in the area. The Golden Strip YMCA bought the site property in 2002 and began redeveloping the area as a multi-use recreation complex. Reuses include green space and an interactive environmental education center as well as YMCA soccer fields, nature trails and an amphitheater.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. For additional information click here.

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Helena Chemical Co. Landfill

The 13.5-acre Helena Chemical Co. Landfill Superfund site is located in Fairfax, South Carolina. Several companies operated pesticide formulation facilities at the site between the mid-1960s and 1978. The Helena Chemical Company formulated pesticides on site between 1971 and 1978. Illegal dumping of pesticide residues and other wastes in an unpermitted on-site landfill contaminated soil, sediment and groundwater. EPA and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control began investigating the site in 1985. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. Cleanup began in 1993 – activities included removing contaminated soils and installing a groundwater treatment system. Groundwater treatment is ongoing. The Helena Chemical Company still owns the property. It operates a retail sales outlet for agricultural fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides and seed at the site.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on one on-site business. This business employed 4 people and generated an estimated $321,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Henry's Knob Pollinator Habitat Reuse

The 185-acre Henry’s Knob site is located near the intersection of Highway 55 and Henry’s Knob Road in Clover, York County, South Carolina. An open-pit kyanite mine operated on site from 1947 to 1970. Cleanup is ongoing. Innovative cleanup of part of the site has made possible ecological restoration and the creation of pollinator habitat on site. About 1.4 million cubic yards of mine tailings were left behind in several ponds around the site after the mine’s closure. These tailings interact with precipitation and release contaminants into the groundwater. To address this, the responsible party worked with EPA and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control to develop a soil amendment placed over the tailings to produce a thick vegetative layer to help manage the precipitation. The Superfund site team also helped the responsible party select a seed mix that would support pollinators. Native vegetation and pollinator habitat are now well established on several large portions of the site. It is expected that the remainder of the former tailings ponds will be amended and supporting vegetation by the end of 2018.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. For additional information click here.

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Independent Nail Co. Capped Site Reuse

The Independent Nail Company Superfund site is located in Beaufort, South Carolina. The original owner of the property, the D. Blake and Johnson Company, began manufacturing metallic screws and fasteners in 1969. From 1969 to 1980, the facility disposed of wastewater containing cyanide, chromium and other wastes from the manufacturing process in an on-site lagoon. The company discharged about 33,000 gallons of plating wastewater a day into this lagoon. A 1975 study by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control found that a break in the side of the lagoon allowed wastewater to enter a nearby drainage ditch. Site investigations in the mid-1970s verified soil and groundwater contamination. In April 1980, the D. Blake and Johnson Company ceased operations at the site. Two months later, Independent Nail purchased the plant and began paneling nail coating processes. In 1983, EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL). Cleanup activities included the removal and treatment of contaminated soil and sediment, the backfilling of the cleared areas with the treated soil, and the capping and revegetation of the area. In 1988, EPA determined that the low level of contaminants in groundwater did not pose a risk to human health or the environment. EPA took the site off the NPL in 1995. Several commercial businesses, including specialty contractors and a moving company, are located in the former Independent Nail Company’s facility.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on 3 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 13 people and generated an estimated $1,650,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Koppers Co., Inc. (Charleston Plant)

The 102-acre Koppers Co., Inc. (Charleston Plant) site is located in Charleston, South Carolina. From 1940 until 1978, the Koppers Company operated a wood treatment facility on 45 acres of the site. Facility operations contaminated groundwater, sediment, soil and surface water. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1994. Cleanup activities included digging up and disposing of contaminated soil off site, and placing a cap over contaminated soil on site. It also included rebuilding drainage ditches, capping contaminated sediment, and cleaning up tidal marshes. Some groundwater with contamination was stabilized. Groundwater and creosote are actively being recovered at two source areas on site. EPA is currently engaged in discussions with a prospective purchaser that is interested in developing a multi-use project on the site.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. For additional information click here.

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Koppers Co., Inc. (Florence Plant)

The Koppers Co., Inc. (Florence Plant) Superfund site occupies 145 acres east of Florence, South Carolina. The Koppers Company operated a wood treatment and preserving facility at the site. Workers disposed of process wastewater in unlined lagoons on site. In 1974, EPA ordered the company to control wastewater runoff after the Agency found that the company had violated permit guidelines. The lagoons closed in 1979; further investigations found contaminated groundwater and soil on site. EPA determined that the contamination posed a direct health threat to people using groundwater nearby. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1984. The Koppers Company, with guidance from EPA and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, capped an on-site landfill in the late 1980s. EPA took the site off the NPL in September 2013; treatment of contaminated soil and groundwater is ongoing under EPA’s Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) program. The Koppers Company continues to operate its wood treatment and preserving facilities on site.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on 2 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 58 people and generated an estimated $31,443,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Lexington County Landfill Area Capped Site Reuse Core Infrastructure Reuse Green Remediation Reuse

The mini-golf course on the siteLexington County LandfillThe 160-acre Lexington County Landfill Area Superfund site is located in Cayce, South Carolina. From the 1940s to 1988, facilities on site accepted waste at multiple dumping areas. EPA and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) found that disposal practices led to groundwater contamination. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989. Cleanup began in 1996. With future reuse opportunities in mind, Lexington County decided to lead and fund site cleanup activities. The County worked with two on-site businesses, Par Tee Driving Range and Bray Park Road Ball Park, on plans that enabled the facilities to remain open during cleanup. Site cleanup activities consisted of consolidating and capping waste as well as regrading areas. Workers also installed a landfill gas collection system and a groundwater treatment system. Par Tee Driving Range used the landfill cover for a new tee box. Lexington County built a collection and recycling center on site. EPA and SCDHEC reviewed designs by Palmetto Falls Mini-Golf for a new mini-golf course on site. EPA, SCDHEC, Richardson Smith Gardner and Associates, and Lexington County also worked with the University of South Carolina to turn part of the site into a practice facility for the university’s golf team. On-site businesses and the recycling center provide jobs and annual employment income to the community. In 2012, EPA Region 4 gave Lexington County its Excellence in Site Reuse award, in recognition of the County’s extraordinary efforts to build partnerships with area businesses, explore green cleanup options, and conduct cleanup in a way that allowed for the site’s safe and appropriate reuse.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on 2 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 5 people and generated an estimated $90,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Macalloy Corporation Capped Site Reuse

A paper stock recycling business now operates on the SiteMacalloy CorporationThe 125-acre Macalloy Corporation Superfund site is located in North Charleston, South Carolina. From 1941 to 1998, operators produced ferrochrome alloy on site. Operations led to groundwater, soil and sediment contamination. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 2000. Cleanup activities included soil mixing as well as groundwater treatment and monitoring. Cleanup also involved sediment removal, tidal creek restoration and stormwater management. EPA and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control worked with the potentially responsible party and a local developer to review plans for an industrial park on site. The developer relocated three businesses to the site property. A paper stock recycler, a liquid sea container business and a container tank-cleaning business are the first tenants of the industrial park. These businesses employ 60 people full time, and provide over $2.5 million in annual employment income to the community. A 2012 facility expansion by the paper stock recycling company increased the company’s monthly recycling handling capacities by 1.5 tons. EPA will continue to work with interested purchasers, tenants and developers to ensure the compatibility of future reuse activities with the site’s remedy.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on 4 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 47 people and generated an estimated $9,765,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Palmetto Wood Preserving

The 5-acre Palmetto Wood Preserving Superfund site is located in Dixiana, South Carolina. Wood preserving operations took place on site from 1963 to 1985. During this time, spills of wood preserving chemicals led to soil and groundwater contamination. EPA listed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1984. In 1986, EPA found contamination in surface water, sediments, soil and groundwater on site and nearby. EPA began cleanup work in 1988. Activities included cleaning up soil, installing a groundwater extraction and treatment system, and connecting a sewer line to the City of Cayce’s wastewater treatment plant. EPA also removed the original wood preserving facility from the site. Groundwater cleanup is complete and EPA has removed the groundwater treatment building and associated piping. The South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control continues to monitor groundwater. South Carolina Electric and Gas owns the northern portion of the site and uses it for equipment storage. Other areas of the site remain undeveloped. EPA will provide information to prospective purchasers and stakeholder interested in reusing these areas.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. For additional information click here.

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Para-Chem Southern, Inc.

Lagoon 1, which has been backfilled and is currently being used as a tractor trailer parking lotPara-Chem Southern, Inc.The 134-acre Para-Chem Southern, Inc. Superfund site is located in Simpsonville, South Carolina. Para-Chem Southern (now Royal Adhesives & Sealants) has operated on site since 1965. The company produces acrylic polymers, thickeners, latex coatings and adhesives for consumer and industrial applications. In 1985, the company notified EPA and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) about areas where industrial plant waste burial took place between 1975 and 1979. Operators also discharged wastewater into two unlined ponds on site. Disposal practices and two 3,000-gallon spills led to the contamination of surface water, soil, sludge and groundwater. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. Cleanup included removal of contaminated soil, drums and waste. Activities also included soil and groundwater treatment. Following cleanup, EPA took parts of the site off the NPL in 1997. Groundwater treatment and subsurface soil cleanup are ongoing. The manufacturing facility continues to operate on site.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on one on-site business. This business employed 50 people and generated an estimated $67,633,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Rock Hill Chemical Co. Capped Site Reuse

The 4.5-acre Rock Hill Chemical Co. Superfund site is located in Rock Hill, South Carolina. From 1960 to 1964, Rock Hill Chemical Company (RHCC), a paint solvent company, operated on site. RHCC accepted wastes and stored them in piles on the ground or buried them on site. In October 1964, a fire caused oil and chemical drums to explode, releasing their contents into the environment. First Federal Savings Bank began to construct a branch office on site in 1984 and discovered the contamination. In 1986 and 1987, First Federal Savings Bank and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control removed contaminated soil from the site. After the cleanup, EPA determined that no further action for soil was necessary. In 1990, EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL). The site’s potentially responsible parties began operating a groundwater treatment system in 1995. Groundwater contamination remains within the site boundary. Several commercial businesses are active on site.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on one on-site business. This business employed 3 people and generated an estimated $190,000 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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Sangamo Weston, Inc/Twelve-Mile Creek/Lake Hartwell PCB Contamination Capped Site Reuse

The Sangamo Weston, Inc./Twelve-Mile Creek/Lake Hartwell PCB Contamination Superfund site is located in Pickens, South Carolina. The 224-acre area includes a former manufacturing plant, six waste disposal areas, and a portion of Twelve-Mile Creek and Lake Hartwell. Sangamo Weston, Inc. owned and operated a capacitor manufacturing plant on site from 1955 to 1987. Waste handling practices resulted in contamination on site. EPA added the site to the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. Cleanup activities included removal and treatment of soil and groundwater, fish tissue and sediment monitoring, fish consumption guidelines, and a fish advisory public education and awareness program. Fish advisories remain in effect for fish caught from Lake Hartwell and Twelve-Mile Creek. After cleanup finished, EPA took portions of the site off the NPL. In a merger, Sangamo Weston became Schlumberger Technology Corporation, and donated part of the site property to the City of Pickens in 1999. The City of Pickens redeveloped the area into a public recreation complex.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA did not have economic data related to on-site businesses, or economic data were not applicable due to site use. For additional information click here.

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Townsend Saw Chain Co.

AMBAC International (formerly American Bosch), a manufacturer and supplier of fuel injection equipment, operates at the former Textron, Inc. facilityTownsend Saw Chain Co.The 50-acre Townsend Saw Chain Co. Superfund site is located near Pontiac, South Carolina. Starting in 1971, Textron operated a facility for manufacturing saw chain parts on site. From 1964 to 1981, operations discharged wastewater onto the ground in a low-lying area next to the facility. Improper waste disposal caused soil and groundwater contamination. EPA placed the site on the National Priorities List (NPL) in 1990. EPA’s cleanup actions included removal and disposal of contaminated soil as well as treatment of soil and groundwater. Groundwater monitoring is ongoing. Following cleanup, 35.5 acres of the site have been redeveloped. AMBAC International, a manufacturer and supplier of fuel injection equipment, currently operates out of the former Townsend manufacturing facility. Other site reuses include a veterinary hospital, a kennel, a hotel, an auto-body shop, an industrial park, two retail stores, a gas station and restaurants. Centerline Development retains ownership of the site’s remaining 14.5 acres.
Last updated June 2017

As of December 2018, EPA had data on 19 on-site businesses. These businesses employed 164 people and generated an estimated $17,976,059 in annual sales revenue. For additional information click here.

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