Introduction to the Automotive Trends Report
This annual report is part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) commitment to provide the public with information about new light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel economy, technology data, and auto manufacturers' performance in meeting the agency’s GHG emissions standards.
EPA has collected data on every new light-duty vehicle model sold in the United States since 1975, either from testing performed by EPA at the National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory in Ann Arbor, Michigan, or directly from manufacturers using official EPA test procedures. These data are collected to support several important national programs, including EPA criteria pollutant and GHG standards, the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and vehicle Fuel Economy and Environment labels. This expansive data set allows EPA to provide a uniquely comprehensive analysis of the automotive industry over the last 40 plus years.
All data in this report for model years 1975 through 2018 are final and based on official data submitted to EPA and NHTSA as part of the regulatory process. In some cases, this report will show data for model year 2019, which are preliminary and based on data provided to EPA by automakers prior to the model year. Preliminary data is not shown for manufacturer compliance. The report does not examine future model years, and past performance does not necessarily predict future industry trends.
The carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel economy data in this report fall into one of two categories. The first is compliance data, which is measured using laboratory tests required by law for CAFE and adopted by EPA for GHG compliance. The second is estimated real-world data, which is measured using additional laboratory tests to capture a wider range of operating conditions (including hot/cold weather and higher acceleration) that an average driver will encounter. For more information about the Trends database see About the Data.
The content in this report was previously published in two separate reports, the Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends Report, and the GHG Manufacturer Performance Report. These reports were combined, starting with the 2018 report, to provide a more comprehensive analysis.