Low Releases and Low Exposures (LoREX) Exemption for New Chemicals Review under TSCA
Pursuant to section 5(h)(4) and section 26 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), EPA established an exemption category for certain new chemical substances with low environmental releases and human exposures.
- Read the rule establishing this exemption (60 FR 16336-16351, March 29, 1995).
- Read the EPA regulations on the LoREX at 40 CFR 723.50
To ensure that these chemical substances will not present an unreasonable risk, EPA has included procedural safeguards, including a 30-day review and other conditions in the exemption.
- The LoREX exemption is intended to encourage companies to develop manufacturing, processing, use, and disposal techniques which minimize exposures to workers, consumers, the general public, and the environment.
- Eligibility is independent of production volume level.
- All manufacturers of new chemical substances subject to PMN requirements and meeting the stated release and exposure criteria are eligible to apply for this low release and exposure (LoREX) exemption, regardless of production volume.
- The exemption notice submitter must first meet the eligibility criteria listed in paragraph (c) of the rule indicating that exposure to the new substance, and the risk presented by the substance, is low.
- In general the submitter must show that there are no exposures to consumers and low or no exposures to the general public inherent in the proposed manufacturing, processing, or uses of the substance, and that any worker exposure which is likely to occur will be adequately controlled through use of engineering controls, work practices, and/or personal protective equipment.
LoREX eligibility criteria for releases to three environmental media are specified in the rule in 40 CFR section 723.50(c)(2) (iii) –(v).
The Agency encourages potential submitters to consult with the Agency prior to the initiation of any testing. Such consultation frequently results in more relevant data and can often lower the submitters' test costs.
Why did EPA provide an exemption for new chemicals with low environmental releases and human exposures?
The Agency determined that the concept of basing an exemption on low release and exposure taken together offered several potential advantages. First, an exposure-driven exemption can generally provide a more direct gauge of the magnitude of risk which will be presented by a given new chemical substance. Production volume alone is only an indirect indicator of exposures and releases. Secondly, the existence of a LoREX exemption will encourage pollution prevention techniques by rewarding manufacturers able to meet the low release and exposure criteria with more timely regulatory decisions, and, in many cases, with less burdensome regulatory controls resulting in substantial time and resource savings for both EPA and industry.
The same form (7710-25) is used for requesting LoREX as for other section 5 submissions.
- The uses of the new chemical substance are restricted to those approved in the exemption notice, and submitters must maintain any exposure or release controls throughout the period of the exemption.
- Manufacturing sites identified in the exemption notice are binding unless specified conditions are satisfied. These binding provisions of the LoREX exemption can be an effective substitute for regulation under pursuant to a Consent Order under section 5(e) of the TSCA.
- The principal focus of the LoREX exemption is on release and exposure, not toxicity. EPA will generally be unable to conduct a thorough review of any submitted test data within the allotted review period.
- To the extent that the Agency must undertake extensive detailed examination of the inherent toxicity of a given chemical substance, submission of a PMN may be more appropriate. (Of course, any toxicity data on the new chemical substance in the possession or control of the manufacturer must accompany the submission whether it is necessary for exemption approval or not).
- All chemical substances which will be disposed of via landfill unless the submitter demonstrates to EPA in the notice that the exempted substance has negligible ground-water migration potential.
- If EPA later determines that the substance may cause serious acute or chronic human effects or environmental effects the exemption can be revoked.
- EPA has the authority to require documents relevant to an exemption from the manufacturer (in addition to the information provided in the exemption notice), and the manufacturer would be required to submit promptly to EPA any new data indicating that a substance is ineligible. These provisions ensure that eligibility for and continuation of the exemption will be determined on the basis of the best available information, regardless of when the information becomes available.
The Agency will deny an exemption application despite satisfaction of the LoREX exemption criteria if EPA finds the substance or its related products may cause serious acute effects, chronic effects, or significant environmental effects described in 40 CFR 723.50(d) or if there are issues concerning exposure or toxicity that require further review beyond 30 days under section 40 CFR 723.50(h)(1).
Upon approval of a LoREX exemption, the submitter is bound to the uses and the exposure and release controls described in the approved exemption. The submitter is also bound to the listed manufacturing sites unless the conditions described in the exemption are met.
Note: You must mark the certification statements on PMN page 2 and fill out the contact information on PMN page 3. You can enter the rest of the modification information into the form in one of three ways:
- Fill in the applicable fields in the PMN pages 4-13;
- Enter the modification information in the cover letter; or
- Enter the modification information as an attachment.
It should be noted that for modifications, the new e-PMN software does not validate any data beyond PMN page 3.