Water Efficiency for Water Suppliers
Only so much freshwater is available for consumption. To keep up with population growth, greater competition of resources, and climate considerations, drinking water suppliers need to adopt best industry practices for water efficiency, and new strategies that adjust for changes in water quantity and quality.
From source to tap to the quantity of wastewater we must treat, it is important that we reduce the amount of water we use and manage our use of water more effectively. Drinking water system owners and operators can pursue best industry practices for water efficiency, such as:
- System-wide water loss accounting,
- Leak detection and repair, and
- Pricing that encourages consumer water conservation.
Water suppliers can also take steps to ensure adequate source capacity and system readiness for variable water quality. Follow the tabs to find resources to help with water efficiency, water availability and water mapping data.
Water Efficiency Strategies
Drinking water systems can implement water efficiency measures and still deliver an unchanged or improved level of service to consumers while reducing overhead costs. Improving water efficiency reduces operating costs (e.g., pumping and treatment) and reduces the need to develop new supplies and expand our water infrastructure. It also reduces withdrawals from limited freshwater supplies, leaving more water for future use and improving the ambient water quality and aquatic habitat.
More and more utilities are using water efficiency and consumer conservation programs to increase the sustainability of their supplies. There are many ways to improve efficiency through supply-side practices, such as accurate meter reading and leak detection and repair programs, and through demand-side strategies, such as conservation-based water rates and public education programs.
EPA has developed a document that provides an overview of a range of best practices that utilities can undertake to avoid the need to expand their water supplies.
- Best Practices to Consider When Evaluating Water Conservation and Efficiency as an Alternative for Water Supply Expansion
Supply-side Strategies for Water Suppliers
Accounting for Water
Accounting for water is an essential step toward ensuring that a water utility is sustainable. This is best accomplished when water systems meter use by their customers. Metering helps to identify losses due to leakage and also provides the foundation on which to build an equitable rate structure to ensure adequate revenue to operate the system.
- American Water Works Association's FREE Water Audit Software Exit
- National Environmental Service Center Tech Brief: Water Meters (PDF) Exit(4 pp, 1.36 K, About PDF)
Water Loss Control
National studies indicate that, on average, 14 percent of the water treated by water systems is lost to leaks. Some water systems have reported water losses exceeding 60 percent. Accounting for water and minimizing water loss are critical functions for any water utility that wants to be sustainable.
- EPA's Control and Mitigation of Drinking Water Losses in Distribution Systems
- National Environmental Service Center Tech Brief: Leak Detection and Water Loss Control (PDF) Exit(4 pp, 203 K, About PDF)
Demand-side Strategies for Water Suppliers
One of the most effective ways to reduce demand for water is to establish rates that escalate as more water is used. The following resources have information on and examples of effective rate management:
- EPA's The Price of Water Services webpage
- EPA's Small System Guide to Rate Setting (PDF)(62 pp, 341 K, About PDF)
- Alliance for Water Efficiency's Water Rates and Rate Structures Exit
Consumers can reduce water use by installing water-efficient products or employing efficiency practices, such as turning the water off while brushing teeth or running washing machines only when they are full. Water systems can promote these actions through consumer rebate and education programs.
- EPA's WaterSense Program - WaterSense seeks to protect the future of our nation's water supply by promoting water efficiency and enhancing the market for water-efficient products, programs, and practices. Visit the website for information on water-efficient products and practices, as well as utilities who offer rebates for WaterSense labeled products. Water systems can also apply to become a WaterSense program partner and receive tools they can use to promote their own water efficiency programs.
- EPA's Water Infrastructure and Resiliency Finance Center - The Center works with on-the-ground partners to provide financial technical assistance to communities. It provides objective financial advice to help communities make informed decisions on funding drinking water, wastewater, and stormwater infrastructure projects. It also provides access to tools that help utilities make financing decisions that meet their local infrastructure needs.
As water supplies are stressed by growing populations, climate challenges and greater competition of resources, the need to leverage innovative technologies and alternative water supplies continues to grow. The challenge for many is matching the quality of water with its intended use.
Many water systems use treated wastewater for irrigation or industrial uses where water does not need to be of drinking water quality. Some water systems treat wastewater to drinking water standards and store it underground before using it as a source of drinking water.
Water systems can use the following approaches to address current and anticipated variability of source water quality and quantity:
An increasing number of communities are viewing wastewater as a resource rather than a waste.
- EPA's Guidelines for Water Reuse (PDF) (643 pp, 17.8 MB, About PDF) - Although there are no federal regulations on water reuse, EPA has developed guidelines that describe the types of reuse applications, technical and legal issues in the U.S., public involvement, and water reuse in other countries, most recently in 2012. The document summarizes existing regulations in the U.S., includes over 100 case studies, has information on planning for future water reuse systems, and has information on indirect potable reuse and industrial reuse.
- National Academy of Sciences' Water Reuse: Potential for Expanding the Nation's Water Supply through Reuse of Municipal Wastewater Exit - The report provides an overview of the options and outlook for water reuse in the U.S. The report discusses water treatment technologies, uses of reclaimed water, and compares the risks of drinking reclaimed water to those of drinking water from traditional sources.
- WateReuse Research Foundation Exit - The Foundation promotes the science of water reuse, recycling, reclamation, and desalination. The Foundation's research covers a broad spectrum of issues, including chemical contaminants, microbiological agents, treatment technologies, salinity management, public perception, economics, and marketing.
- Water Reuse Projects:
- State Water Reuse Programs:
Artificial aquifer recharge (AR) is the enhancement of natural ground water supplies using manmade conveyances such as infiltration basins or injection wells. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is a specific type of AR to augment ground water resources and recover the water in the future for various uses. The type of water injected for ASR includes treated drinking water, surface water, stormwater, and treated wastewater effluent. The wells used to inject fluids are regulated as underground injection wells under the Safe Drinking Water Act.
- Class V Underground Injection Well Study (PDF)(73 pp, 339 K, About PDF)
- Aquifer Recharge Wells and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Wells - Class V Underground Injection Control (UIC) Study Factsheet
- Prospects for Managed Underground Storage of Recoverable Water (PDF)(4 pp, 370 K, About PDF) Exit - The National Academies' Report in Brief
- U.S. Geological Survey provides information on aquifer recharge, as well as ground water software for modeling flow, transport, and geochemical reactions Exit
- Orange County, California, Groundwater Replenishment System Exit Case Study
As source water becomes scarcer and treatment technology improves, more water systems are considering desalination. Desalination is a way to treat and use seawater or brackish ground water (more common in the southwestern U.S.) to create a freshwater supply. Brackish and saline water filtration and treatment can produce large amounts of waste residuals that require proper disposal.
- Membrane Filtration Guidance Manual (PDF)(331 pp, 3.8 MB, About PDF) - Although developed to support the EPA Cryptosporidium (LT2) Rule, this guidance contains information for utilities considering membranes for desalination or water reuse purposes.
- Desalination: A National Perspective (PDF)(4 pp, 1.7 MB, About PDF) Exit - The National Academies' Report in Brief
- El Paso, Texas, Brackish Water Desalination Exit Case Study
- Tampa Bay, Florida, Seawater Desalination Exit Case Study
Many communities consider stormwater a valuable resource to capture or inject into the ground to restore depleted aquifers. Solutions range from retention ponds, to rain barrels and cisterns, to a variety of strategies for infiltrating stormwater where it falls, rather than channeling it away through piped systems.
Fostering these approaches in your community can reduce the demands on your drinking water system, extend the life of water supplies, and have other environmental benefits. Find out more from the following EPA sources:
- National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Stormwater Program
- When Are Stormwater Discharges Regulated as Class V Wells? Fact Sheet (PDF)(2 pp, 798 K, About PDF)
- Stormwater Drainage Wells
- Green Infrastructure
- Urban Runoff: Low Impact Development
- Water Research Foundation's Climate Change Clearinghouse Exit
- U.S. Bureau of Reclamation's Climate Change and Variability Research Exit
- EPA's "Water Is Worth It" Facebook page Exit - Information and discussion on the value of water
- EPA's Source Water Protection web page
- EPA's Planning and Management: Programmatic Response to Climate Change and Water web page
- EPA's National Water Program Strategy, Response to Climate Change (PDF) (132 pp, 2.8 MB, About PDF)
- United States Global Change Research Program Exit
- Center for Watershed Protection Exit
Several national databases on surface water and ground water resources are available online to help in evaluating your water system's source water viability.
- EPA's MyEnvironment - Environmental information for your area.
- EPA's Climate Assessment Tool element of the BASINS water modeling program - Used to assess climate-related water resource impacts and program decisions.
- U.S. Geological Survey's Water Data Discovery - Features water maps including droughts, floods, streamflow and ground water response to climate challenges.
- U.S. Geological Survey's National Hydrography Dataset - A comprehensive set of digital spatial data representing the surface water of the United States. These data can to be used for general mapping and analyzing surface water systems using geographic information systems.
- U.S. Geological Survey's Ground Water Atlas of the United States
On this page:
- Training and Tools
- Case Studies and Best Management Practices
- Working with States
- State Actions
- Related Links
- Control and Mitigation of Drinking Water Losses in Distribution Systems (PDF)(176 pp, 3 MB, About PDF)
- Webinar on Water Efficiency, Availability, and Variability - This webinar provides an overview of water efficiency, availability and variability issues for drinking water system owners and operators, technical assistance providers, and regulators.
- Alliance for Water Efficiency Water Conservation Tracking Tool Exit - This is an Excel-based tool for Alliance members. It evaluates utility savings, costs, and benefits from conservation programs.
- U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Training - This online course introduces the key elements of water resource management, planning, and implementation.
- Case Studies of Sustainable Water and Wastewater Pricing (PDF),(25 pp, 1,117 K, About PDF)
- Cases in Water Conservation: How Efficiency Programs Help Water Utilities Save Water and Avoid Costs (PDF) (54 pp, 555 K, About PDF)
- EPA Water Conservation Plan Guidelines - In 1998, EPA issued guidelines for water conservation plans for public water systems. Some states require water systems to submit a water conservation plan as a condition of receiving a loan under the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund. The guidelines contain step-by-step approaches and conservation measures that can be used by water system planners to develop and implement plans for water conservation.
- Water Conservation Measures (PDF) (4 pp, 314 K, About PDF) Exit - National Drinking Water Clearinghouse fact sheet.
- Analysis of Leak Detection Technology, Albuquerque, NM Exit
- Funding Water Efficiency Through the State Revolving Fund Programs (PDF)(8 pp, 1.38 MB, About PDF)
- National Analysis of State Drinking Water Programs in the Areas of Water Availability, Variability and Sustainability (WAVS) (PDF)(40 pp, 4.6 MB, About PDF) Exit- This white paper was completed by the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators to address short- and long-term drinking water sustainability and public health issues associated with extreme meteorological events. It examines the roles and regulatory capacity of state drinking water programs and how these programs can promote agency and government coordination for integrated water resource management.
The following links exit the site Exit
- Alliance for Water Efficiency Resource Library - The Alliance for Water Efficiency Resource Library hosts a clickable map of the United States that provides state-by-state information on water efficiency incentives and regulations.
- The Metropolitan North Georgia Water District - Created by the Georgia General Assembly in 2001 to work with local governments, water and wastewater utilities, and stakeholders to develop a comprehensive regional water resources plan to protect water quality and water supply, to protect recreational values of the waters, and to minimize potential adverse impacts of development on water.
- Washington State's Water Use Efficiency (WUE) Program - Increases awareness about how the efficient use of water strengthens the relationship between the reliability and safety of our water supplies. Washington State has one of the most comprehensive regulatory WUE programs in the nation by requiring municipal water suppliers to demonstrate and report their efficient use of water. These requirements stemmed from a 2003 Municipal Water Law (MWL) and subsequent Water Use Efficiency Rule, which impacts all community water systems in the state.
- Texas Water Development Board - The Texas Water Development Board's Water Conservation Division developed several guides as part of its mission to provide leadership, planning, financial assistance, information, and education for the conservation and responsible development of water for Texas.
- Water Conservation Best Management Practices Guide (PDF)(266 pp, 1.6 MB, About PDF)
- Water Loss Audit Manual for Texas Utilities(58 pp, 885 K, About PDF)
The following links exit the site Exit
- EPA's "Water Is Worth It" Facebook page
- Alliance for Water Efficiency
- Water—Use It Wisely
- California Urban Water Conservation Council
- Water Utility Climate Alliance