Contaminant Candidate List 3 - CCL 3
that are currently not subject to any proposed or promulgated national primary drinking water regulations,
that are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems, and
which may require regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA).
chemicals used in commerce,
The Agency considered the best available data and information on health effects and occurrence to evaluate thousands of unregulated contaminants. EPA used a multi-step process to select 116 candidates for the final CCL 3. The final CCL 3 includes 104 chemicals or chemical groups and 12 microbiological contaminants.
Overview of CCL 3 Process
In developing the CCL 3, EPA implemented an improved process from that which was used for CCL 1 and CCL 2. This new process builds on evaluations used for previous CCLs and was based on substantial expert input and recommendations from the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council (NAS) and the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC).
EPA used a multi-step CCL process to identify contaminants for inclusion on the final CCL 3. The key steps include:
- Identifying a broad universe of potential drinking water contaminants (called the CCL 3 Universe). EPA initially considered approximately 7,500 potential chemical and microbial contaminants.
- Applying screening criteria to the universe EPA identified almost 600 of those contaminants that should be further evaluated (the preliminary CCL or PCCL) based on a contaminant's potential to occur in public water systems and the potential for public health concern.
- EPA then selected 116 contaminants from the PCCL to include on the CCL based on more detailed evaluation of occurrence and health effects and expert judgment.
- EPA incorporated information from the public, expert input, and expert review in the CCL process.
CCL 3 Process Flow Diagram
The CCL 3 Process Flow Diagram provides a visual overview of the CCL 3 pertaining to each step in the process.
The support documents pertain to each step in the process.
For additional CCL 3 support documents and more detailed information on the contaminants, visit docket number EPA-HQ-OW-2007-1189 at Regulations.gov.
CCL 3 List
|1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane||630-20-6||It is an industrial chemical used in the production of other substances.|
|1,1-Dichloroethane||75-34-3||It is an industrial chemical used as a solvent.|
|1,2,3-Trichloropropane||96-18-4||It is an industrial chemical used in paint manufacture.|
|1,3-Butadiene||106-99-0||It is an industrial chemical used in rubber production.|
|1,3-Dinitrobenzene||99-65-0||It is an industrial chemical and is used in the production of other substances.|
|1,4-Dioxane||123-91-1||It is used as a solvent or solvent stabilizer in the manufacture and processing of paper, cotton, textile products, automotive coolant, cosmetics and shampoos.|
|17alpha-estradiol||57-91-0||It is an estrogenic hormone and is used in pharmaceuticals.|
|1-Butanol||71-36-3||It is used in the production of other substances.|
|2-Methoxyethanol||109-86-4||It is used in consumer products, such as synthetic cosmetics, perfumes, fragrances, hair preparations, and skin lotions.|
|2-Propen-1-ol||107-18-6||It is used in the production of other substances, and in the manufacture of flavorings and perfumes.|
|3-Hydroxycarbofuran||16655-82-6||It is a carbamate and is a pesticide degradate. The parent, carbofuran, is used as an insecticide.|
|4,4'-Methylenedianiline||101-77-9||It is used in the production of other substances.|
|Acephate||30560-19-1||It is used as an insecticide.|
|Acetaldehyde||75-07-0||It is used in the production of other substances, and as a pesticide and food additive.|
|Acetamide||60-35-5||It is used as a solvent, solubilizer, plasticizer and stabilizer.|
|Acetochlor||34256-82-1||It is used as an herbicide for weed control on agricultural crops.|
|Acetochlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA)||187022-11-3||Acetochlor ESA is an acetanilide pesticide degradate. The parent, acetochlor, is used as an herbicide for weed control on agricultural crops.|
|Acetochlor oxanilic acid (OA)||184992-44-4||Acetochlor OA is an acetanilide pesticide degradate. The parent, acetochlor, is used as an herbicide for weed control on agricultural crops.|
|Acrolein||107-02-8||It is used as an aquatic herbicide, rodenticide and industrial chemical.|
|Alachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA)||142363-53-9||Alachlor ESA is an acetanilide pesticide degradate. The parent, alachlor, is used as an herbicide for weed control on agricultural crops.|
|Alachlor oxanilic acid (OA)||171262-17-2||Alachlor OA is an acetanilide pesticide degradate. The parent, alachlor, is used as an herbicide for weed control on agricultural crops.|
|alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane||319-84-6||It is a component of benzene hexachloride (BHC) and was formerly used as an insecticide.|
|Aniline||62-53-3||It is used as an industrial chemical, as a solvent, in the synthesis of explosives, rubber products and in isocyanates.|
|Bensulide||741-58-2||It is used as an herbicide.|
|Benzyl chloride||100-44-7||It is used in the production of other substances, such as plastics, dyes, lubricants, gasoline and pharmaceuticals.|
|Butylated hydroxyanisole||25013-16-5||It is used as a food additive (antioxidant).|
|Captan||133-06-2||It is used as a fungicide.|
|Chlorate||14866-68-3||Chlorate compounds are used in agriculture as defoliants or desiccants and may occur in drinking water related to use of disinfectants such as chlorine dioxide.|
|Chloromethane (Methyl chloride)||74-87-3||It is used as a foaming agent and in the production of other substances.|
|Clethodim||110429-62-4||It is used as an herbicide.|
|Cobalt||7440-48-4||It is a naturally-occurring element and was formerly used as cobaltus chloride in medicines and as a germicide.|
|Cumene hydroperoxide||80-15-9||It is used as an industrial chemical and is used in the production of other substances.|
|Cyanotoxins (3)*||Toxins naturally produced and released by cyanobacteria ("blue-green algae"). Various studies suggest three cyanotoxins for consideration: Anatoxin-a, Microcystin-LR, and Cylindrospermopsin.|
|Dicrotophos||141-66-2||It is used as an insecticide.|
|Dimethipin||55290-64-7||It is used as an herbicide and plant growth regulator.|
|Dimethoate||60-51-5||It is used as an insecticide on field crops, (such as cotton), orchard crops, vegetable crops, in forestry and for residential purposes.|
|Disulfoton||298-04-4||It is used as an insecticide.|
|Diuron||330-54-1||It is used as an herbicide.|
|equilenin||517-09-9||It is an estrogenic hormone and is used in pharmaceuticals.|
|equilin||474-86-2||It is an estrogenic hormone and is used in pharmaceuticals.|
|Erythromycin||114-07-8||It is used in pharmaceutical formulations as an antibiotic.|
|Estradiol (17-beta estradiol)||50-28-2||It is an estrogenic hormone and is used in pharmaceuticals.|
|estriol||50-27-1||It is an estrogenic hormone and is used in veterinary pharmaceuticals.|
|estrone||53-16-7||It is an estrogenic hormone and is used in veterinary and human pharmaceuticals.|
|Ethinyl Estradiol (17-alpha ethynyl estradiol)||57-63-6||It is an estrogenic hormone and is used in veterinary and human pharmaceuticals.|
|Ethoprop||13194-48-4||It is used as an insecticide.|
|Ethylene glycol||107-21-1||It is used as an antifreeze, in textile manufacture and is a cancelled pesticide.|
|Ethylene oxide||75-21-8||It is used as a fungicidal and insecticidal fumigant.|
|Ethylene thiourea||96-45-7||It is used in the production of other substances, such as for vulcanizing polychloroprene (neoprene) and polyacrylate rubbers, and as a pesticide.|
|Fenamiphos||22224-92-6||It is used as an insecticide.|
|Formaldehyde||50-00-0||It has been used as a fungicide, may be a disinfection byproduct and can occur naturally.|
|Germanium||7440-56-4||It is a naturally-occurring element and is commonly used as germanium dioxide in phosphors, transistors and diodes, and in electroplating.|
|Halon 1011 (bromochloromethane)||74-97-5||It is used as a fire-extinguishing fluid and to suppress explosions, as well as a solvent in the manufacturing of pesticides. May also occur as a disinfection by-product in drinking water.|
|HCFC-22||75-45-6||It is used as a refrigerant, as a low-temperature solvent, and in fluorocarbon resins, especially in tetrafluoroethylene polymers.|
|Hexane||110-54-3||It is used as a solvent and is a naturally-occurring alkane.|
|Hydrazine||302-01-2||It is used in the production of other substances, such as rocket propellants, and as an oxygen and chlorine scavenging compound.|
|Mestranol||72-33-3||It is an estrogenic hormone and is used in veterinary and human pharmaceuticals.|
|Methamidophos||10265-92-6||It is used as an insecticide.|
|Methanol||67-56-1||It is used as an industrial solvent, a gasoline additive and also as anti-freeze.|
|Methyl bromide (Bromomethane)||74-83-9||It has been used as a fumigant as a fungicide.|
|Methyl tert-butyl ether||1634-04-4||It is used as an octane booster in gasoline, in the manufacture of isobutene and as an extraction solvent.|
|Metolachlor||51218-45-2||It is used as an herbicide for weed control on agricultural crops.|
|Metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid (ESA)||171118-09-5||Metolachlor ESA is an acetanilide pesticide degradate. The parent, metolachlor, is used as an herbicide for weed control on agricultural crops.|
|Metolachlor oxanilic acid (OA)||152019-73-3||Metolachlor OA is an acetanilide pesticide degradate. The parent, metolachlor, is used as an herbicide for weed control on agricultural crops.|
|Molinate||2212-67-1||It is used as an herbicide.|
|Molybdenum||7439-98-7||It is a naturally-occurring element and is commonly used as molybdenum trioxide as a chemical reagent.|
|Nitrobenzene||98-95-3||It is used in the production of aniline, and also as a solvent in the manufacture of paints, shoe polishes, floor polishes, metal polishes, explosives, dyes, pesticides and drugs (such as acetaminophen).|
|Nitroglycerin||55-63-0||It is used in pharmaceuticals, in the production of explosives, and in rocket propellants.|
|N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone||872-50-4||It is a solvent in the chemical industry, and is used for pesticide application and in food packaging materials.|
|N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)||55-18-5||It is a nitrosamine used as an additive in gasoline and in lubricants, as an antioxidant, as a stabilizer in plastics and also may be a disinfection byproduct.|
|N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)||62-75-9||It is a nitrosamine and has been formerly used in the production of rocket fuels, is used as an industrial solvent and an anti-oxidant, and also may be a disinfection byproduct.|
|N-nitroso-di-n-propylamine (NDPA)||621-64-7||It is a nitrosamine and may be a disinfection byproduct.|
|N-Nitrosodiphenylamine||86-30-6||It is a nitrosamine chemical reagent that is used as a rubber and polymer additive and may be a disinfection byproduct.|
|N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR)||930-55-2||It is a nitrosamine used as a research chemical and may be a disinfection byproduct.|
|Norethindrone (19-Norethisterone)||68-22-4||It is a progresteronic hormone used in pharmaceuticals.|
|n-Propylbenzene||103-65-1||It is used in the manufacture of methylstyrene, in textile dyeing, and as a printing solvent, and is a constituent of asphalt and naptha.|
|o-Toluidine||95-53-4||It is used in the production of other substances, such as dyes, rubber, pharmaceuticals and pesticides.|
|Oxirane, methyl-||75-56-9||It is an industrial chemical used in the production of other substances.|
|Oxydemeton-methyl||301-12-2||It is used as an insecticide.|
|Oxyfluorfen||42874-03-3||It is used as an herbicide.|
|Perchlorate||14797-73-0||It is both a naturally occurring and human-made chemical. Perchlorate is used to manufacture fireworks, explosives, flares and rocket propellant.|
|Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)||1763-23-1||PFOS was used in fire fighting foams and various surfactant uses; few of which are still ongoing because no alternatives are available.|
|Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)||335-67-1||PFOA is used in the manufacture of fluoropolymers, substances which provide non-stick surfaces on cookware and waterproof, breathable membranes for clothing|
|Permethrin||52645-53-1||It is used as an insecticide.|
|Profenofos||41198-08-7||It is used as an insecticide and an acaricide.|
|Quinoline||91-22-5||It is used in the production of other substances, as a pharmaceutical (anti-malarial) and as a flavoring agent.|
|RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)||121-82-4||It is used as an explosive.|
|sec-Butylbenzene||135-98-8||It is used as a solvent for coating compositions, in organic synthesis, as a plasticizer and in surfactants.|
|Strontium||7440-24-6||It is naturally-occurring element and is used as strontium carbonate in pyrotechnics, in steel production, as a catalyst and as a lead scavenger.|
|Tebuconazole||107534-96-3||It is used as a fungicide.|
|Tebufenozide||112410-23-8||It is used as an insecticide.|
|Tellurium||13494-80-9||It is a naturally-occurring element and is commonly used as sodium tellurite in bacteriology and medicine.|
|Terbufos||13071-79-9||It is used as an insecticide.|
|Terbufos sulfone||56070-16-7||Terbufos sulfone is a phosphorodithioate pesticide degradate. The parent, terbufos, is used as an insecticide.|
|Thiodicarb||59669-26-0||It is used as an insecticide.|
|Thiophanate-methyl||23564-05-8||It is used as a fungicide.|
|Toluene diisocyanate||26471-62-5||It is used in the manufacture of plastics.|
|Tribufos||78-48-8||It is used as an insecticide and as a cotton defoliant.|
|Triethylamine||121-44-8||It is used in the production of other substances, as a stabilizer in herbicides and pesticides, in consumer products, in food additives, in photographic chemicals and in carpet cleaners.|
|Triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH)||76-87-9||It is used as a pesticide.|
|Urethane||51-79-6||It is used as a paint ingredient.|
|Vanadium||7440-62-2||It is a naturally-occurring element and is commonly used as vanadium pentoxide in the production of other substances and as a catalyst.|
|Vinclozolin||50471-44-8||It is used as a fungicide.|
|Ziram||137-30-4||It is used as a fungicide.|
|Microbial Contaminant Name||Information|
|Adenovirus||Virus most commonly causing respiratory illness, and occasionally gastrointestinal illness|
|Caliciviruses||Virus (includes Norovirus) causing mild self-limiting gastrointestinal illness|
|Campylobacter jejuni||Bacterium causing mild self-limiting gastrointestinal illness|
|Enterovirus||Group of viruses including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses and echoviruses that can cause mild respiratory illness|
|Escherichia coli (0157)||Toxin-producing bacterium causing gastrointestinal illness and kidney failure|
|Helicobacter pylori||Bacterium sometimes found in the environment capable of colonizing human gut that can cause ulcers and cancer|
|Hepatitis A virus||Virus that causes a liver disease and jaundice|
|Legionella pneumophila||Bacterium found in the environment including hot water systems causing lung diseases when inhaled|
|Mycobacterium avium||Bacterium causing lung infection in those with underlying lung disease, and disseminated infection in the severely immunocompromised|
|Naegleria fowleri||Protozoan parasite found in shallow, warm surface and ground water causing primary amebic meningoencephalitis|
|Salmonella enterica||Bacterium causing mild self-limiting gastrointestinal illness|
|Shigella sonnei||Bacterium causing mild self-limiting gastrointestinal illness and bloody diarrhea|
Contaminant Information Websites
The list of websites below provides resources for general information on chemical contaminants.
- ATSDR Toxicity Profiles
This U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) source lists toxicological profiles in PDF form for various chemicals under "Finalized Toxicological Profiles." These profiles include health effects; chemical and physical properties; production, import/export, use and disposal information; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; and regulations and advisories for a given chemical.
- ChemIDplus Advanced
This U.S. National Library of Medicine source provides chemical structure; chemical classification (type of chemical or use); registry number; synonyms and names; toxicity information (such as LD50 and LC50) drawn from primary literature.
- Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB)
This U.S. National Library of Medicine (USNLM) source includes information on human health effects; emergency medical treatment; animal toxicity studies; metabolism/pharmacokinetics; environmental fate and exposure; environmental standards and regulations; chemical/physical properties; chemical safety and handling; manufacturing/use information; analytical laboratory methods; and synonyms and identifiers for a given chemical.
- Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
This EPA site presents information from chronic health hazard assessments for non-carcinogenic effects and carcinogenicity assessments for lifetime exposure. Data elements for non-cancer data include RfD and RfC values, and specify critical organs and effects, type of study, animal model used, year of study, duration of study, and so on. Data elements for cancer data include oral slope factor values, drinking water unit risk values, dose-response relationships and cancer class.
- Pesticide Reregistration Status
This EPA Office of Pesticide Programs provides fact sheets for pesticides in PDF form. Fact sheets include information in narrative and table form on use; health; risk (dietary, occupational, residential and ecological); and risk mitigation. Data elements include NOAEL, LOAEL, RfD, EEC, LD50, LC50 values, and critical effects for each of these. Also available are production, use and exposure assessment data.
- Substance Registry System (SRS)
This EPA site provides information on substances and how they are represented in the EPA regulations and information systems. The SRS is EPA's central system for information about regulated and monitored substances. The system provides a common basis for identification of chemicals, biological organisms, and other substances listed in EPA regulations and data systems, as well as substances of interest from other sources, such as publications. You can query for substances by common identifiers, names, or alternate identifiers.
- World Health Organization (WHO): Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality
This site provides information on international norms on water quality and human health. WHO sets guidelines that are used as the basis for regulation and standard setting in countries around the world.
Public Meeting Held On Preliminary Regulatory Determination for the Third Contaminant Candidate List (CCL3)
EPA hosted a public stakeholder meeting on June 16, 2011,in Washington, DC, to discuss the Agency’s Regulatory Determinations 3. For more information see the slides presented.