Effluent Guidelines

Oil and Gas Extraction Effluent Guidelines

Rule Summary

Oil and gas offshore well platform photoEPA promulgated the Oil and Gas Extraction Effluent Guidelines and Standards (40 CFR Part 435) in 1979, and amended the regulations in 1993, 1996, 2001 and 2016. The regulations cover wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and well completion activities. These activities take place on land, in coastal areas and offshore.
The Oil and Gas regulations apply to conventional and unconventional oil and gas extraction with the exception of coalbed methane. The regulatory requirements are incorporated into NPDES permits.
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What is the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry?

Oil and Gas Extraction is the exploration and production of petroleum and natural gas from wells. The industry generates wastewater from the water extracted from the geological formations and from chemicals used during exploration, well drilling and production of oil and gas.

These activities are included within NAICS code 211111, Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction. (Note: the NAICS group listings are provided as a guide and do not define the coverage of the Oil and Gas regulations. For precise definitions of coverage, see the applicability sections in 40 CFR Part 435.)

Facilities Covered

The Oil and Gas regulations apply to facilities organized into 5 subcategories:
  1. Offshore
  2. Onshore
  3. Coastal
  4. Agricultural and Wildlife Water Use
  5. Stripper Wells
Wastestreams Covered
All Subparts Subparts A & D Only
Produced water Domestic
Produced sand Sanitary
Drilling fluids Deck drainage
Drill cuttings  
Well treatment, workover & completion fluids  

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Unconventional Extraction - Pretreatment Standards

EPA has established pretreatment standards under Subpart C which prohibit discharges of wastewater pollutants from onshore unconventional oil and gas (UOG) extraction facilities to publicly owned treatment works.

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Coalbed Methane Extraction

EPA has not promulgated effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pollutant discharges from coalbed methane extraction facilities. EPA had initiated a coalbed methane rulemaking, but announced its decision to discontinue this effort in Fall 2014.

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Rulemaking History

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2016 Amendment

2001 Amendment

Added requirements for the discharge of synthetic-based drilling fluids (SBFs) and other non-aqueous drilling fluids

1996 Amendment

Added BAT, BCT, NSPS, PSES and PSNS, and revised BPT limitations for coastal facilities

1993 Amendment

Added BAT, BCT and NSPS requirements for offshore facilities
  • Documents, including:
    • Final Rule - Federal Register Notice (3/4/1993)
      • Development Document
    • Proposed Rules - Federal Register Notices:
      • 56 FR 1066, 3/13/1991
      • 55 FR 49094, 11/26/1990
      • 53 FR 41356, 10/21/1988 (Notice of Data Availability)
      • 50 FR 34592, 8/26/1985

1979 Initial Rulemaking

BPT limitations for Offshore; Onshore; Coastal; and Agricultural and Wildlife Water Use subcategories
  • Documents, including:
    • Final Rule - Federal Register Notice (4/13/1979)
    • Interim Final Rules:
      • 10/13/1976 (Subparts C through F)
      • 9/15/1975 (Subparts A and B)
        • Development Document

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Additional Information

For additional information on Unconventional Extraction, please contact Karen Milam (milam.karen@epa.gov) or 202-566-1915.

For additional information on other requirements in Part 435, please contact Ron Jordan (jordan.ronald@epa.gov) or 202-566-1003.

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