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EPA ExpoBox

Exposure Assessment Tools by Approaches

Exposure assessment is one of the four major steps in risk assessment. Others include hazard identification, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization.

Exposure may be estimated using one of three approaches:

Direct MeasurementDirect Measurement

See information and tools related to direct measurement (Point-of-Contact) or personal monitoring


Indirect EstimationIndirect Estimation

See information and tools related to indirect estimation or scenario evaluation


Expo ReconstructionExposure Reconstruction

See information and tools related to exposure reconstruction or biomonitoring and reverse dosimetry