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Facts and Figures about Materials, Waste and Recycling

Construction and Demolition: Material-Specific Data

Construction and Demolition (C&D) debris is a type of waste that is not included in municipal solid waste (MSW). Materials included in the C&D debris generation estimates are steel, wood products, drywall and plaster, brick and clay tile, asphalt shingles, concrete, and asphalt concrete. These materials are used in buildings, roads and bridges, and other sectors.

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EPA measures the generation of C&D debris in the United States. The generation estimate represents C&D amounts from construction, renovation and demolition activities for buildings, roads and bridges.

This is a picture of a partially demolished building. There also is debris on the ground in front of the part of the building that is demolished, and a yellow crane is picking up some debris.EPA estimated that 569 million tons of C&D debris were generated in the United States in 2017, which is more than twice the amount of generated MSW. For more information on methodology, see Construction and Demolition Debris Generation in the United States, 2015.

EPA also produced estimates for the 2015 mass quantities of C&D debris material directed to landfills or intended for next use. For more information, see Construction and Demolition Debris Management in the United States, 2015.

Looking for more information on C&D debris? Check out these web pages:

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Summary Table and Graph

The data below are from 1960 to 2017, relating to the total number of tons of construction and demolition debris generated.

1960-2017 Data on Construction and Demolition Debris by Weight (in thousands of U.S. tons)
Management Pathway 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2010 2015 2016 2017
Generation - - - 135,530 - 170,000 - 547,878 560,607 569,436
Recycled - - - - - - - - - -
Composted - - - - - - - - - -
Combustion with Energy Recovery - - - - - - - - - -
Landfilled - - - - - - - - - -


1998 Characterization of Building-Related Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States that estimates the generation of building-related C&D materials in the U.S. in 1996.

Estimating 2003 Building-Related Construction and Demolition Materials Amounts that estimates the generation of building-related C&D materials in the United States.

Construction and Demolition Debris Generation in the United States, 2017.

A dash in the table means that data is not available.

A graph is not provided because sufficient data is not available in the table.

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