Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes involving wetland vegetation, soils, and their associated microbial assemblages to improve water quality. The following documents provide additional information about constructed treatment wetlands.
- Constructed Treatment Wetlands (PDF) (2 pp, 269 K, About PDF)
- Guiding Principles for Constructed Treatment Wetlands: Providing Water Quality and Wildlife Habitat (PDF)(25 pp, 704 K, About PDF)
The document includes:
- Guiding principles for siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance and monitoring of constructed treatment wetlands
- Information on current Agency policies, permits, regulations and resources
- Answers to common questions
- The Guiding Principles were developed by the Interagency Workgroup on Constructed Wetlands (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Army Corps of Engineers, Fish and Wildlife Service, Natural Resources Conservation Services, National Marine Fisheries Service and Bureau of Reclamation).
- Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment and Wildlife Habitat: 17 Case Studies (EPA832-R-93-005) This document provides brief descriptions of 17 wetland treatment systems from across the country that are providing significant water quality benefits while demonstrating additional benefits such as wildlife habitat. The projects described include systems involving both constructed and natural wetlands, habitat creation and restoration and the improvement of municipal effluent, urban stormwater and river water quality.
- Design Manual: Constructed Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater (PDF)(166 pp, 1.6 MB, About PDF) This document describes using constructed wetlands as a functional part of wastewater management. This document is not intended to be guidance or a support document for a specific regulatory program.
- A Handbook of Constructed Wetlands This Handbook has been prepared as a general guide to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of constructed wetlands for the treatment of domestic wastewater, agricultural wastewater, coal mine drainage and stormwater runoff in the Mid-Atlantic Region.
- Free Water Surface Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: A Technology Assessment (PDF)(172 pp, 8.4 MB, About PDF) This document assesses the application, performance and scientific knowledge of free surface water (FWS) wetlands to treat municipal wastewater and to meet other societal and ecological needs.
- Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: A Technology Assessment (PDF) (87 pp, 586K) This report describes the design, construction and performance of subsurface-flow constructed wetlands as used in the United States for wastewater treatment.