Tire Crumb and Synthetic Turf Field Literature and Report List as of Nov. 2015
The views expressed in all these studies and reports do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The purpose of this list is to provide the public with a list of studies and reports that have addressed the topic of tire crumb, it may not be fully up-to-date or comprehensive. Links are provided when available.
- Leaching of DOC, DN and Inorganic Constituents from Scrap Tires
Selbes M., Yilmaz O., Khan A.A., Karanfil T. (2015). Chemosphere. 139:617-23.
- Environmental and Health Impacts of Artificial Turf: A Review
Cheng H., Hu Y., Reinhard M. (2014). Environ Sci Technol. 48(4):2114-29.
- Environmental Sanitary Risk Analysis Procedure Applied to Artificial Turf Sports Fields
Ruffino et al. (2013). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.
- New Approach to the Ecotoxicological Risk Assessment of Artificial Outdoor Sporting Grounds
Krüger O., Kalbe U., Richter E., Egeler P., Römbke J., Berger W. (2013). Environ Pollut. 175:69-74.
- Artificial Turf Football Fields: Environmental and Mutagenicity Assessment
Schilirò T., Traversi D., Degan R., Pignata C., Alessandria L., Scozia D., Bono R., Gilli G. (2013). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 64(1):1-11.
- Bioaccessibility and Risk Exposure to Metals and SVOCs in Artificial Turf Field Fill Materials and Fibers
Pavilonis B.T., Weisel C.P., Buckley B., Lioy P.J. (2013). Risk Anal.
- Review of the Human Health & Ecological Safety of Exposure to Recycled Tire Rubber Found at Playgrounds and Synthetic Turf Fields
Cardno Chem Risk. (2013). Prepared for: Rubber Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.
- Health Risk Assessment of Lead Ingestion Exposure by Particle Sizes in Crumb Rubber on Artificial Turf Considering Bioavailability
Kim S., Yan J.Y., Kim H.H., Yeo I.Y., Shin D.C., Lim Y.W. (2012). Environ Health Toxicol. 27:e2012005.
- Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber
Rhodes E.P., Ren Z., Mays D.C. (2012). Environ Sci Technol. 46(23):12856-63.
- Comparison of Batch and Column Tests for the Elution of Artificial Turf System Components
Krüger O., Kalbe U., Berger W., Nordhauβ K., Christoph G., Walzel H.P. (2012). Environ Sci Technol. 46(24):13085-92
- Design of a New Test Chamber for Evaluation of the Toxicity of Rubber Infill
Gomes JF, Mota HI, Bordado JC, Baião M, Sarmento GM, Fernandes J, Pampulim VM, Custódio ML, Veloso I. (2011). Toxicol Mech Methods. 21(8):622-7
- An Evaluation of Potential Exposure to Lead and Other Metals as the Result of Aerosolized Particulate Matter from Artificial Turf Playing Fields
Shalat, S.L. (2011). Submitted to the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection
- Artificial-Turf Playing Fields: Contents of Metals, PAHs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs, Inhalation Exposure to PAHs and Related Preliminary Risk Assessment
Menichini et al. (2011). Sci Total Environ. 409(23):4950-7.
- Human Health Risk Assessment of Synthetic Turf Fields Based Upon Investigation of Five Fields in Connecticut
Ginsberg et al. (2011). J Toxicol Environ Health A. 74(17):1150-74.
- Synthetic Turf Field Investigation in Connecticut
Simcox et al. (2011). J Toxicol Environ Health A. 74(17):1133-49.
- Benzothiazole Toxicity Assessment in Support of Synthetic Turf Field Human Health Risk Assessment
Ginsberg et al. (2011). J Toxicol Environ Health A. 74(17):1175-83.
- Hydroxypyrene in Urine of Football Players After Playing on Artificial Sports Fields with Tire Crumb Infill
Van Rooij and Jongeneelen. (2010). Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 83(1):105-10.
- Risk Assessment of Artificial Turf Fields
Connecticut Department of Energy & Environmental Protection. (2010). Connecticut Departments of Public Health and Environmental Protection and the Connecticut Agricultural Research Station.
- Toxicological Assessment of Coated Versus Uncoated Rubber Granulates Obtained from Used Tires for Use in Sport Facilities
Gomes et al. (2010). J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 60(6):741-6.
- Characterization of Substances Released from Crumb Rubber Material Used on Artificial Turf Fields
Li et al. (2010). Chemosphere. 80(3):279-85.
- Evaluating and Regulating Lead in Synthetic Turf
Gregory Van Ulirsch, Kevin Gleason, Shawn Gerstenberger, Daphne B. Moffett, Glenn Pulliam, Tariq Ahmed, Jerald Fagliano. (2010). Environ Health Perspect. 118(10): 1345–1349.
- Safety Study of Artificial Turf Containing Crumb Rubber Infill Made from Recycled Tires: Measurements of Chemicals and Particulates in the Air, Bacteria in the Turf, and Skin Abrasions Caused by Contact with the Surface
California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. (2010). Prepared for the California Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery.
- An Assessment of Chemical Leaching, Releases to Air and Temperature at Crumb-Rubber Infilled Synthetic Turf Fields
Lim L., Walker R. (2009). New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, New York State Department of Health.
- A Scoping-Level Field Monitoring Study of Synthetic Turf Fields and Playgrounds
Highsmith R., Thomas K.W., Williams R.W. (2009). EPA/600/R-09/135. National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
- Air Quality Survey of Synthetic Turf Fields Containing Crumb Rubber Infill
Vetrano, K.M., Ritter G. (2009). Prepared by TRC for the New York City Department of Mental Health and Hygiene, New York, NY.
- New Jersey Investigation of Artificial Turf and Human Health Concerns
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services. (2008). Fact Sheet. Consumer and Environmental Health Services. Epidemiology, Environmental and Occupational Health. Trenton, NJ.
- A Review of the Potential Health and Safety Risks from Synthetic Turf Fields Containing Crumb Rubber Infill
Denly E., Rutkowski K., Vetrano K.M. (2008). Prepared by TRC for the New York City Department of Mental Health and Hygiene, New York, NY.
- Synthetic Turf: Health Debate Takes Root
Claudio L. (2008). Environ Health Perspect 116(3): A116–A122.
- Artificial Turf: Safe or Out on Ball Fields Around the World
Lioy P., Weisel C. (2008). Editorial. J of Expos Anal Environ Epidem. 18:533-534
- Hazardous Chemicals in Synthetic Turf Materials and their Bioaccessibility in Digestive Fluids
Zhang et al. (2008). J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 18(6):600-7.
- Mapping, Emissions and Environmental and Health Assessment of Chemical Substances in Artificial Turf
Nilsson N.H., Malmgren-Hansen B., Thomsen U.S. (2008). Danish Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Protection Agency.
- Evaluation of Health Effects of Recycled Waste Tires in Playgrounds and Track Products
California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. (2007). Prepared for the California Integrated Waste Management Board.
- Examination of Crumb Rubber Produced from Recycled Tires
Incorvia Mattina M.J., Isleyen M., Berger W., Ozdemir S. (2007). The Connecticut Agricultural Research Station, New Haven, CT.
- Artificial Turf: Exposures to Ground-Up Rubber Tires - Athletic Fields - Playgrounds - Gardening Mulch
Environment & Human Health Inc. (2007).
- Environmental and Health Evaluation of the Use of Elastomer Granulates (Virgin and from Used Tyres) as Filling in Third-Generation Artificial Turf
Moretto. (2007). France, ALIAPUR in partnership with Fieldturf Tarkett and the ADEME (Environmental French Agency).
- Preliminary Assessment of the Toxicity from Exposure to Crumb Rubber: Its Use in Playgrounds and Artificial Turf Playing Fields
LeDoux T. (2007). Division of Science, Research and Technology. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection.
- A Case Study of Tire Crumb Use on Playgrounds: Risk Analysis and Communication When Major Clinical Knowledge Gaps Exists
Anderson et al. (2006). Environ Health Perspect.114(1):1-3.
- A Survey of Microbial Populations in Infilled Synthetic Turf Fields
McNitt A.S., Petrunak D., Serensits T. (2006). Penn State University, College of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Plant Science.
- Artificial Turf Pitches: An Assessment of Health Risks for Football Players and the Environment
Norwegian Institute of Public Health and the Radium Hospital. (2006). Norwegian Institute of Public Health and the Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
- Measurement of Air Pollution in Indoor Artificial Turf Halls
Dye C., Bjerke A, Schmidbauer N., Mano S. (2006). Norwegian Pollution Control Authority/Norwegian Institute for Air Research, State Programme for Pollution Monitoring.
- Toxicological Evaluation for the Hazard Assessment of Tire Crumb for Use in Public Playgrounds
Birkholz et al. (2003). J Air Waste Manag, 53:903-07.