Current options for managing wastewater biosolids in the United States include both beneficial reuse technologies (such as land application, landfilling with biogas recovery, and energy recovery through incineration) and non-reuse options, including landfilling. While implementing some type of beneficial reuse is the preferred method for managing wastewater biosolids, this is not always practical. For example, land acquisition constraints or poor material quality may limit beneficial reuse options. In these situations, landfilling of biosolids may be a viable alternative.
Biosolids landfilling options include disposal in a monofill (a landfill that accepts only wastewater treatment plant biosolids), or in a co-disposal landfill (a landfill that combines biosolids with municipal solid waste). Although co-disposal landfilling is more common than monofilling, biosolids typically represent only a small percentage of the total waste in a co-disposal landfill.You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more.
- Use of Landfilling for Biosolids Management (PDF)(8 pp, 248 K, June 2003, EPA 832-F-03-012)