The following books and articles use results from EPA's Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model. These resources are provided to users as examples; EPA does not endorse the views or conclusions of any authors.
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Abel, Troy D. (2008). Skewed Riskscapes and Environmental Injustice: A Case Study of Metropolitan St. Louis. Environmental Management 42:232–248.
Abel, Troy D. (2003) Unjust Riskscapes and Skewed Political Landscapes: The Evolving Science of Environmental Injustice. Prepared for delivery at the 2003 Annual Meetings of the American Political Science Association, August 28–August 31.
Abel, T. , Stephan, M & Kraft, M. (2007). Environmental information disclosure and risk reduction among the states. State & Local Government Review: 153–165.
Abel, T., & White, J. (2011) Skewed Riskscapes and Gentrified Inequities: Environmental Exposure Disparities in Seattle, Washington. American Journal of Public Health, 101 (S1), S246-S254.
Abel, T., White, J., & Clauson, S. (2015). Risky Business: Sustainability and Industrial Land Use Across Seattle’s Gentrifying Riskscape. Sustainability, 2015 (7), 15718-15753.
Allen, S., Fanucchi, M., McCormick, L. and Zierold, K. (2019). The Search for Environmental Justice: The Story of North Birmingham. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2117; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122117 Exit
Andersen, D. (2017). Default Risk, Productivity, and the Environment: Theory and Evidence from U.S. Manufacturing. University of Alberta Faculty of Arts, Department of Economics Working Paper No 2017-08. https://sites.ualberta.ca/~econwps/2017/wp2017-08.pdf Exit
Andersen, D. (2017). Do credit constraints favor dirty production? Theory and plant-level evidence. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 84, 189–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeem.2017.04.002 Exit
Annenberg, S., and Kalman, C. (2019), Extreme Weather, Chemical Facilities, and Vulnerable Communities in the U.S. Gulf Coast: A Disastrous Combination. GeoHealth 3(5) 122-126, May. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1029/2019GH000197Exit
Antweiler, W. (2017). Emission trading for air pollution hot spots: getting the permit market right. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, 19 (1), 35–58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10018-015-0138-x Exit
Ard, K. and Bullock, C. (2020) Concentrating risk? The geographic concentration of health risk from industrial air toxics across America. Chapter 12 in Spatiotemporal Analysis of Air Pollution and Its Application in Public Health. Editors: Lixin Li, Xiaolu Zhou, Weitian Tong. Elsevier, 277-292, ISBN 9780128158227,
Ard, K. (2016). By all measures: an examination of the relationship between segregation and health risk from air pollution. Population and Environment, 38 (1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11111-015-0251-6 Exit
Ard, K. (2015). Trends in exposure to industrial air toxins for different racial and socioeconomic groups: A spatial and temporal examination of environmental inequality in the U.S. from 1995 to 2004. Social Science Research, 53, 375–390.
Ard, K. (2013). Changes in Exposure to Industrial Air Pollution across the United States from 1995 to 2004: The Role of Race, Income, and Segregation. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan). ProQuest Distinguished Dissertation Award for 2013.
Ash, M., & Boyce, J. K. (2018). Racial disparities in pollution exposure and employment at US industrial facilities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1721640115 EXIT
Ash, M., & Boyce, J.K. (2016). Assessing the jobs-environment relationship with matched data from US EEOC and US EPA. Working Paper 2016-03. University of Massachusetts – Amherst.
Ash, M., & Boyce, J.K. (2010). Measuring corporate environmental justice performance. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management. doi: 10.1002/csr.238.
Ash, M., Boyce, J.K., Chang, G., Pastor, M., Scoggins, J., & Tran, J. (2009). Justice in the Air: Tracking Toxic Pollution from America’s Industries and Companies to our States, Cities, and Neighborhoods. Political Economy Research Institute (Amherst, MA) and Program for Environmental and Regional Equity (Los Angeles, CA).
Ash, M., Boyce, J.K., Chang, G. & Scharber, H. (2013). Is Environmental Justice Good for White Folks? Industrial Air Toxics Exposure in Urban America. Social Science Quarterly, 94 (3): 616–636.
Ash, M., & Fetter, T.R. (2004) Who Lives on the Wrong Side of the Environmental Tracks? Social Science Quarterly, 85 (2):441-462, 2004.
Bae, H. et al. (2008). Information Disclosure Policy: Do States' Data Processing Efforts Help More than the Information Disclosure Itself? NBER Working Paper.
Bakhtsiyarava, M., & Nawrotzki, R. (2017). Environmental inequality and pollution advantage among immigrants in the United States. Applied Geography, 81, 60–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2017.02.013 Exit
Banzhaf, H. & Randall, P. (2008). Do People Vote with Their Feet? An Empirical Test of Tiebout’s Mechanism. American Economic Review, 98 (3), 843–863.
Berman, J., Mccormack, M., Koehler, K., Connolly, F., Clemons-Erby, D., Davis, M. & Curriero, F. (2018). School environmental conditions and links to academic performance and absenteeism in urban, mid-Atlantic public schools. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 221 (5), 800–808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.04.015 Exit
Boone, C., Fragkias, M., Buckley, B. & Grove, M. (2014). A long view of polluting industry and environmental justice in Baltimore. Cities, 36, 41–49.
Bouiver, R. (2014). Distribution of income and toxic emissions in Maine, United States: Inequality in two dimensions. Ecological Economics, Volume 102, June, 39-47.
Bosman, M. (2010). Spatial and Environmental Injustice in an American Metropolis: A Study of Tampa Bay, Florida. Amherst, New York: Cambria Press.
Boyce, J. K., & Pastor, M. (2013). Clearing the air: incorporating air quality and environmental justice into climate policy. Climatic Change, 120(4), 801-814.
Boyce, J. K., & Pastor, M. (2012). Cooling the Planet, Clearing the Air: Climate Policy, Carbon Pricing, and Co-Benefits. Portland, OR: Economics for Equity and the Environment; Washington, DC: Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies. Online at https://works.bepress.com/james_boyce/42/ Exit
Boyce, J., Zwickl, K. & Ash, M. (2016). Measuring environmental inequality. Ecological Economics, 124, 114–123.
Boyce, J., Zwickl, K. & Ash, M. (2014). Three Measures of Environmental Inequality. Working Paper No. 12. Institute for New Economic Thinking.
Bullock, C., Ard, K., & Saalman, G. (2018). Measuring the Relationship between State Environmental Justice Action and Air Pollution Inequality, 1990–2009. Review of Policy Research, 35 (3), 466-490. https://doi.org/10.1111/ropr.12292 Exit
California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board. 2010. Proposed Screening Method for Low-Income Communities Highly Impacted by Air Pollution for AB 32 Assessments. Release Date: April 21, 2010.
Caren, Neal, and Ethan Schoolman. (2008). Closing the Clean Air Gap? Environmental Justice in the 1990s. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, July 31.
Chakraborty, J., Maantay, J. & Brender, J. (2011). Disproportionate Proximity to Environmental Health Hazards: Methods, Models, and Measurement. American Journal of Public Health 101(S1), S27-S36.
Chakraborty, J., Collins, T. W., Grineski, S. E., & Maldonado, A. (2017). Racial differences in perceptions of air pollution health risk: Does environmental exposure matter? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(2), 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020116 Exit
Christensen, P. & Timmins, C. (2018). Sorting or Steering: Experimental Evidence on the Economic Effects of Housing Discrimination, NBER Working Papers 24826, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Clark, B. R. (2012). Development of an Air Pollution Asthma Risk-Screening Model for Ohio Elementary Schools (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University).
Collins, M. (2011). Risk-Based Targeting: Identifying Disproportionalities in the Sources and Effects of Industrial Pollution. American Journal of Public Health: December 2011, Vol. 101, No. S1, pp. S231-S237. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300120
Collins, M., Munoz, I. & Jaja, J. (2016). Linking ‘toxic outliers’ to environmental justice communities. Environ. Res. Lett., 11. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/1/015004
Cong, Y., Freedman, M. & Park, J. (2014). Tone at the top: CEO environmental rhetoric and environmental performance. Advances in Accounting, 30 (2), 322–327.
Cory, Dennis C. On Notions of Fairness in Environmental Justice. Working Paper. University of Arizona Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
Currie, J., Davis, L., Greenstone, M. & Walker, R. (2015). Environmental Health Risks and Housing Values: Evidence from 1,600 Toxic Plant Openings and Closings. American Economic Review 2015, 105 (2), 678–709.
Cushing, L., Blaustein-Rejto, D., Wander, M., Pastor, M., Sadd, J., Zhu, A., & Morello-Frosch, R. (2018). Carbon trading, co-pollutants, and environmental equity: Evidence from California’s cap-and-trade program (2011–2015). PLoS Medicine, 15 (7), e1002604. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002604 Exit
Delmas, Magali and Vered Doctori Blass. (2010). Measuring Corporate Environmental Performance: the Trade-Offs of Sustainability Ratings. Business Strategy and the Environment 19, 245–260.
Dombrowski, Janine M. (2000). Cross-Media Transfers of Pollution and Risk. Doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Downey, L. (2007). US Metropolitan-area Variation in Environmental Inequality Outcomes. Urban Studies 44: 953-977, doi:10.1080/00420980701256013.
Downey, L. (2006). Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit. Oxford Journals Social Sciences Social Forces, 85 (2), 771-796.
Downey, L., et al. (2008). Environmental Inequality in Metropolitan America. Organization & Environment, 21 (3): 270-294.
Downey, L., & Hawkins, B. (2008). Race, Income, and Environmental Inequality in the United States. Sociological Perspectives, December 1; 51 (4): 759–781.
Downey, L. & Hawkins, B. (2008). Single-Mother Families and Air Pollution: A National Study. Social Science Quarterly, 89 (2): 523–536.
Downey, L., Crowder, K. and Kemp, R. J. (2017). Family Structure, Residential Mobility, and Environmental Inequality. Journal of Marriage and Family, 79: 535–555. doi:10.1111/jomf.12355.
Elliott, J. and Smiley, K. (2019). Place, Space, and Racially Unequal Exposures to Pollution at Home and Work. Social Currents 6(1):32-50.
Fetter, T. R. (2017). Innovation, diffusion, and regulation in energy technologies (Order No. 10259835). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (1898142503). https://dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/10161/14452/Fetter_duke_0066D_13914.pdfExit
Fujii, H. Okamoto, S. Kagawa, S. & Managi, S. (2017) Decomposition of toxicity emission changes on the demand and supply sides: empirical study of the US industrial sector. Environ. Res. Lett., 12, 124008. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa9c66 Exit
Grant, D., Trautner, M, Downey, L., & Thiebaud, L. (2010) Bringing the Polluters Back In Environmental Inequality and the Organization of Chemical Production. American Sociological Review 75 (4), 479-504.
Hill, E. & Ma, L. (2017) Does Shale Gas Development Impact Infant Health through Drinking Water? Iowa State University, Economics Department. https://www.econ.iastate.edu/files/events/files/sgd_dw_health_paper_isu.pdf Exit
Hoang, P., Mcguire, W., & Prakash, A. (2018). Reducing Toxic Chemical Pollution in Response to Multiple Information Signals: The 33/50 Voluntary Program and Toxicity Disclosures. Ecological Economics, 146, 193–202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.10.010 Exit
Holladay, S. (2008). Are Exporters Mother Nature’s Best Friends? Working paper. Department of Economics, UCB Boulder CO.
Holladay, J. S. (2016). Exporters and the environment. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique 49: 147–172. doi:10.1111/caje.12193
Harner, J., Warner, K., Pierce, J., & Huber, T. (2002). Urban Environmental Justice Indices, The Professional Geographer, 54: 3, 318 - 331.
Kalnins, A., & Dowell, G. (2017). Community Characteristics and Changes in Toxic Chemical Releases: Does Information Disclosure Affect Environmental Injustice? Journal of Business Ethics, 145 (2), 277–292. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2836-5Exit
Kanashiro, P. (2020). Can environmental governance lower toxic emissions? A panel study of U.S. high‐polluting industries. Business Strategy and the Environment
Kanashiro, P. and Rivera, J. (2017). Do Chief Sustainability Officers Make Companies Greener? The Moderating Role of Regulatory Pressures. Journal of Business Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3461-2 Exit
Katner, A. (2015). Prioritization of Louisiana Parishes based on Industrial Releases of Known or Suspected Carcinogens. The Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society : Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society, 167 (3), 122-128.
Konisky, D. M. and Reenock, C. (2018). Regulatory Enforcement, Riskscapes, and Environmental Justice. Policy Stud J 46, 7–36. doi:10.1111/psj.12203.
Kraft, M. (2014). Using Information Disclosure to Achieve Policy Goals: How Experience with the Toxics Release Inventory Can Inform Action on Natural Gas Fracturing. Issues in Energy and Environmental Policy, 6.
Koval, P. (2018) Toxic Effects of Lead Disposal in Water: An Analysis of TRI Facility Releases. College of the Holy Cross, Department Of Economics, Faculty Research Series, Paper No. 18-09.
Lam, C. W., Lim, S. R., & Schoenung, J. M. (2011). Environmental and risk screening for prioritizing pollution prevention opportunities in the US printed wiring board manufacturing industry. Journal of hazardous materials, 189(1), 315-322.
Lim, S., Lam, C., & Schoenung, J. (2011). Priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors in the U.S. toxics release inventory: A comparison of the life cycle impact-based and risk-based assessment tools developed by U.S. EPA. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(9), 2235–2240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.04.008 Exit
Li, X. and Zhou, Y. M. (2017). Offshoring Pollution while Offshoring Production? Strat. Mgmt. J, 38: 2310–2329. doi:10.1002/smj.2656.
Lievanos, R. (2016). Sociospatial Dimensions of Water Injustice: The Distribution of Surface Water Toxic Releases in California’s Bay-Delta. Sociological Perspectives. doi: 10.1177/0731121416648935
Lim, S., Lam, C., & Schoenung, J. (2010). Quantity-based and toxicity-based evaluation of the U.S. Toxics Release Inventory. Journal of Hazardous Materials 178 49–56.
Lucier, C., Rosofsky, A., London, B., Scharber, H., & Shandra, J. M. (2011). Toxic Pollution and School Performance Scores Environmental Ascription in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. Organization & Environment, 24 (4), 423-443.
Metcalf, A., Mackelprang, A. and Galbreth M. (2016) Linking pollution toxicity and human exposure to firm idiosyncratic risk. Journal of Cleaner Production 131 (10 ), September 2016, 659-666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.04.118 Exit
Mohai, P., Kweon, B. S., Lee, S., & Ard, K. (2011). Air pollution around schools is linked to poorer student health and academic performance. Health Affairs, 30(5), 852-862.
Moore, R., & Hotchkiss, J. (2016). The importance of toxicity in determining the impact of hazardous air pollutants on the respiratory health of children in Tennessee. Environmental Pollution, 216, 616–623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.06.022 Exit
Morrison, B., Heath, B., et al. (2008). The Smokestack Effect: Toxic Air and America’s Schools. Special Report. USA Today.
Naidu, S. C., Manolakos, P. T., & Hopkins, T. E. (2013). Environmental Justice in Ohio. Review of Radical Political Economics, 45(3), 384-399.
Ogneva-Himmelberger, Y., Dahlberg, T., Kelly, K. & Simas, T. (2015). Using Geographic Information Science to Explore Associations between Air Pollution, Environmental Amenities, and Preterm Births. AIMS Public Health, 2(3), 469-486.
Pastor, M., Morello-Frosch, R., & Sadd, J. (2010). Air Pollution and Environmental Justice: Integrating Indicators of Cumulative Impact and Socio-Economic Vulnerability into Regulatory Decision-Making. Final Report to California Air Resources Board. http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/apr/past/04-308.pdf Exit
Perricane, L., (2015). County demographic influence on toxic chemical activities of chemical-related industry in Michigan. Walden University Dissertation. https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations/1420/ Exit
Rosofsky, A., Lucier, C., London, B., Scharber, H., Borges-Mendez, R. & Shandra, J. (2014). Environmental ascription in Worcester County, MA: toxic pollution and education outcomes. Local Environment, 19 (3), 283–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13549839.2013.788485 Exit
Rüttenauer, T. (2018). Neighbours matter: A nation-wide small-area assessment of environmental inequality in Germany. Social Science Research, 70, 198–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2017.11.009 Exit
Sadd, J. L., Pastor, M., Morello-Frosch, R., Scoggins, J. & Jesdale, B. (2011). Playing It Safe: Assessing Cumulative Impact and Social Vulnerability through an Environmental Justice Screening Method in the South Coast Air Basin, California. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 8 (5), 1441-1459.
Salazar, D., Clauson, S., Abel, T., and Clauson, A. (2019). Race, Income, and Environmental Inequality in the U.S. States, 1990–2014. Social Science Quarterly 100(3): 592-603.
Sampson, R. & Zhou, Y. (2018). Public vs. Private Firms: Energy Efficiency, Toxic Emissions and Abatement Spending. Forthcoming, Advances in Strategic Management: Sustainability, Stakeholder Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3125155 Exit
Scharber, H., Lucier, C., London, B., Rosofsky, A., and Shandra, J. The consequences of exposure to developmental, neurological, and respiratory toxins for school performance: a closer look at environmental ascription in East Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Population and Environment. Volume 35, Issue 2, pp. 205-224. December 2013.
Schiller, C. (2017). Global Supply-Chain Networks and Corporate Social Responsibility. 13th Annual Mid-Atlantic Research Conference in Finance (MARC) Paper. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3089311 Exit
Schmidt , C.W. (2003). Innovations: The Risk Where You Live. Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (7) A405-A407. June 2003.
Shapiro, M. (2005). Equity and Information: Information regulation, environmental justice, and risks from toxic chemicals. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 24(2): 373-398.
Shapiro, M. (2000). The impact of community characteristics and state policy on changes in emissions and risk from toxic airborne chemicals. Doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester.
Sicotte, D. (2010). Some more polluted than others: unequal cumulative industrial hazard burdens in the Philadelphia MSA, USA. Local Environment,15 (8), 761-774.
Sicotte, D., & Swanson, S. (2007). Whose Risk in Philadelphia? Proximity to Unequally Hazardous Industrial Facilities. Social Science Quarterly 88 (2): 515-534.
Simon, D. & Prince, J. (2015). The Effect of Competition on Toxic Pollution Releases. Indiana University, Bloomington School of Public & Environmental Affairs Research Paper No. 2456732.
Smiley, K. (2020). Social Capital and Industrial Air Pollution in Metropolitan America. The Sociological Quarterly. DOI:10.1080/00380253.2019.1711252
Smiley, K. (2019). A Polluting Creed: Religion and Environmental Inequality in the United States.” Sociological Perspectives 62(6):980-1000.
Stephan, M., Kraft, M. & Abel, T. (2005). Environmental Information Disclosure and Risk Reduction: Findings from a Survey of TRI Facilities, Citizen Activists, and Public Officials. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Political Science Association, Oakland, California, March 17.
Stewart, K., (2017). Utilization of GIS for Characterization of Land Use and Pollution in Washington Parish, Louisiana. Dissertation for Southern University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Baton Rouge, LA.
Sulaeman, J. & Varma, A. (2018). The “Green” Geography: Corporate Environmental Policies and Local Institutional Investors. http://abfer.org/media/abfer-events-2018/annual-conference/investment-finance/AC18P3051_The_Green_Geography_Corporate.pdf Exit
Toffel, Michael W. and Julian D. Marshall. (2004). Improving Environmental Performance Assessment: A Comparative Analysis of Weighting Methods Used to Evaluate Chemical Release Inventories. Journal of Industrial Ecology 8 (1-2) pp. 143-172.
Velagapudi, S., Kumar, A. and Saripalli, M. V. (2017). Application of the US EPA's risk-screening indicators model and toxic release inventory database to study pollution prevention trends in paper manufacturing industry. Environ. Prog. Sustainable Energy, 36: 808–814. doi:10.1002/ep.12646
Velagapudi, S., Kumar, A., & Saripalli, M. (2017). Application of the US EPA’s risk‐screening indicators model and toxic release inventory database to study pollution prevention trends in paper manufacturing industry. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.12646 Exit
Wright, D. (2007). Toxicity-Weighting: A Prioritization Tool for Quality Assurance of Air Toxics Inventories. Maine Department of Environmental Protection.
Zhou, Q., Yang, J., Liu, M., Liu, Y., Sarnat, S. & Bi, J. (2018). Toxicological Risk by Inhalation Exposure of Air Pollution Emitted from China’s Municipal Solid Waste Incineration. Environ. Sci. Technol., 10.1021/acs.est.8b03352. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.8b03352Exit
Zhou, X., & Schoenung, J. (2009). Combining U.S.-based prioritization tools to improve screening level accountability for environmental impact: The case of the chemical manufacturing industry. Journal of Hazardous Materials 172: 423–431.
Zwickl, K., Ash, M. & Boyce, J. (2015). Mapping Environmental Injustice: Race, class and industrial air pollution. Available online at: http://triplecrisis.com/mapping-environmental-injustice/ Exit
Zwickl, K., Ash, M. & Boyce, J. (2014) Regional variation in environmental inequality: Industrial air toxics exposure in U.S. cities. Ecological Economics. 107, November, 494–509.
Zwickl, K. & Moser, M. (2014). Informal environmental regulation of industrial air pollution: Does neighborhood inequality matter? Working Paper. Ecological Economic Papers, 1. WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Vienna.