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Superfund Groundwater: Groundwater Response Completion

This page provides information to support and inform the completion of groundwater response actions.

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Recommended Approach for Evaluating Completion of Groundwater Restoration Remedial Actions at a Monitoring Well, August 2014, OSWER 9283.1-44 (PDF) (18 pp, 375 K)
The purpose of this document is to recommend well-specific factors for EPA Regions and other stakeholders to consider in evaluating the groundwater in each monitoring well for purposes of the recommendations discussed in the ground water restoration completion guidance (OSWER 9355.0-129).

Groundwater Statistics Tool (Version 2), September 2018 (XLSM)
Groundwater Statistics Tool Users Guide (PDF)(36 pp, 2 MB)
The updated Groundwater Statistics Tool from September 2018 is designed to evaluate contaminant of concern (COC) concentrations on a well-by-well basis to determine whether a groundwater restoration remedial action is complete. The tool supports the EPA memorandum "Guidance for Evaluating Completion of Groundwater Restoration Remedial Actions" (OSWER 9355.0-129) and comports with principles outlined in the "Recommended Approach for Evaluating Completion of Groundwater Restoration Remedial Actions" (OSWER 9283.1-44). This new version adds: 1) color coding and format revisions to make the tool more user-friendly; 2) capability to calculate 95UCL even when there are negative trends; 3) calculation for when cleanup levels will be achieved or exceeded based on the trend analysis; and 4) summary sheet to show all summary statistics (i.e., trend and 95UCL) and graphs on one page for easier analysis.

Groundwater Remedy Completion Strategy, May 2014, OSWER 9200.2-144 (PDF) (30 pp, 1230 K)
The Groundwater Remedy Completion Strategy is part of a suite of groundwater guidance being developed by EPA to help focus resources on the information and decisions needed to effectively complete groundwater cleanups. This document follows the Groundwater Roadmap (2011) and the Guidance for Evaluating Completion of Groundwater Restoration Remedial Actions (November 2013). The strategy recommends step-wise planning and decision-making processes for evaluating Superfund groundwater remedy performance, operation and progress toward attainment of remedial action objectives and associated cleanup levels in a reasonable timeframe.

Guidance for Evaluating Completion of Groundwater Restoration Remedial Actions (PDF) (November 2013) OSWER 9355.0-129 (5 pp, 1600 K)
The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for EPA Regions on how to determine when a groundwater restoration remedial action is complete. This guidance recommends evaluating contaminant of concern (COC) concentration levels on a well-by-well basis to assess whether aquifer restoration is complete. In general, to determine that a groundwater restoration remedial action is complete, EPA Regions should use monitoring well-specific conclusions to provide a technical and scientific basis supporting the Agency's conclusion that the groundwater has met and will continue to meet cleanup levels for all COCs in the future.

Groundwater Roadmap July 2011 OSWER 9283.1-34 (PDF) (31 pp, 669 K)
This groundwater road map fact sheet focuses on groundwater response actions to restore all or part of an aquifer that are undertaken using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. This Directive summarizes some of the key recommended steps and factors to consider when selecting a groundwater restoration remedy; designing, constructing, and initiating the remedy, as appropriate, and documenting completion of the site response actions.

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See also:

Methods for Monitoring Pump-and-Treat Performance, June 1994, EPA/600/R-94/123 (PDF) (111 pp, 2.1 MB)
This publication provides guidance for monitoring the effectiveness and efficiency of pump-and-treat remediation systems, with emphasis on the "pump" part of the technology rather than chemical enhancements. The report includes sections on monitoring hydraulic containment, monitoring groundwater restoration, evaluating restoration success/closure, a case study, and references. It includes performance criteria, monitoring objectives, and protocols for evaluating effectiveness of containment and restoration systems. From the Office of Research and Development Publication EPA/600/R-94/123, NTIS Order Number PB95-125456.

Methods for Evaluating the Attainment of Cleanup Standards, Vol. 2: Groundwater, July 1992, EPA/230-R-92-014 (PDF) (361 pp, 5.2 MB)
This document provides site managers and their contractors with statistical methods for evaluating whether groundwater remediation has met pre-established cleanup standards for one or more chemical contaminants at a hazardous waste site. The statistical methods allow for decision making under uncertainty and permit valid extrapolation of information that can be defended and used with confidence to determine whether the site meets the cleanup standard. This document, the second in a series, provides sampling and data analysis methods for the purpose of verifying attainment of a cleanup standard in groundwater. The first volume addressed evaluating attainment in soils and solid media.

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