Small Systems Monthly Webinar Series

Images of small drinking water and wastewater systems related research

Challenges and Treatment Solutions for Small Drinking Water and Wastewater Systems

Free webinars held each month from 2:00-3:00 pm ET (Optional Q&A session from 3:00-3:30 pm ET)

EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water are hosting this monthly webinar series to communicate current small systems research along with Agency priorities. The series is providing a forum for EPA to communicate directly with state personnel and other drinking water and wastewater small systems professionals, which allows EPA to provide training and foster collaboration and dissemination of information. In 2016, the webinars will include presentations from state representatives.

Attendees have the option of receiving a certificate for one continuing education contact hour for each webinar. (Acceptance of certificate is contingent on state and/or organization requirements. EPA cannot guarantee acceptance.)

2016 Schedule and Registration (Subject to change)

  • August 30, 2016: Removal of Multiple Contaminants: Biological Treatment and Ion Exchange
    Glass being filled with tap water

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    Combined Ion Exchange for Removal of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and Hardness (Presented by Treavor Boyer, Arizona State University). This presentation will provide an overview of combined anion exchange and cation exchange (hereafter combined ion exchange) as a single process to simultaneously remove DOC and hardness. The motivation for pursuing combined ion exchange is to remove multiple contaminants with a single treatment process that generates a single waste or residual stream. Combined ion exchange results will be presented from laboratory experiments and an ongoing pilot plant study. The combined ion exchange process will also be discussed in terms of reactor configuration (i.e., fixed bed or completely mixed), process operating conditions, regeneration efficiency and waste disposal, and appropriateness for small systems.

    Capabilities of Biological Treatment for Drinking Water (Presented by Nicholas Dugan, EPA's Office of Research and Development). The biological treatment of drinking water is a process that has the potential to significantly reduce contaminant concentrations while minimizing the generation of treatment residuals. Contaminants of regulatory interest that have shown themselves amenable to removal through biological treatment include ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and perchlorate. Biological treatment also has the capability to remove dissolved organic material that, though not directly regulated, is a precursor for the production of regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). This presentation will discuss the scientific fundamentals of biological treatment and present several case studies that serve to illustrate the capabilities of the process as well as operation and maintenance issues that need to be considered.

    About the Presenters

    Treavor Boyer, Ph.D. - Dr. Boyer is an Associate Professor at the School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment, Arizona State University. where his research interest is water sustainability with many research projects on innovative applications of ion exchange technology. Dr. Boyer is the recipient of a National Science Foundation CAREER Award and his research has been sponsored by federal agencies including the Water Innovation Network for Sustainable Small Systems Center (WINSSS). WINSSS is one of two National Centers for Innovation in Small Drinking Water Systems that received EPA grants in 2013 to perform innovative research in small to medium sized drinking water systems. Dr. Boyer earned his Ph.D. and M.S. in environmental engineering from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and his B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Florida.

    Nicholas Dugan, P.E. - Nick is an engineer in Nick is an environmental engineer with EPA ORD's National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he specializes in drinking water treatment. In addition to his work with cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins, he has performed or supervised bench- and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the removal of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, perchlorate, and disinfection byproduct precursors through biological drinking water treatment processes.

Past Webinars

Recordings and presentation slides are available below for past webinars, and are being hosted on the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators' (ASDWA) website. Exit (Note: Continuing education contact hour certificates cannot be offered for watching previously recorded webinars)

  • Lead and Copper: Sampling and Water Quality Challenges (July 26, 2016)
    Glass being filled with tap water

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    Lead and Copper Tap Sampling Requirements and Procedures (Presented by Edward Viveiros, EPA's Office of Water). This presentation provided a review of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) tap water sampling requirements for small systems, including site selection and sample collection. It also provided clarification on recommended tap sampling procedures relating to aerators, pre-stagnation flushing and bottle configuration. The presentation will also point to instructional resources available to small systems.

    Flint Michigan: Water Quality Challenges and Moving Forward (Presented by Darren A. Lytle, EPA's Office of Research and Development). This discussion included a timeline of the key events in Flint, MI, as related to the elevated levels of lead in the drinking water. The different Flint drinking water sources involved were presented, along with changes in water quality parameters that were impacted by the different source waters. The crisis led to the establishment of the EPA Flint Technical Advisory Committee, and the task force recommendations was presented. In addition, sampling efforts that have taken place in Flint to-date were discussed, as well as planned pipe scale sampling associated with experimental pipe loop test rigs and excavated lead service lines. Other efforts underway include improving distribution system (DS) modeling and a DS flushing program. The results of a filter study were presented along with current corrosion control optimization efforts.

    About the Presenters

    Edward Viveiros - Edward is an environmental engineer at EPA's Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Drinking Water Protection Branch, where he serves as an implementation lead for the Lead and Copper Rule. Prior to that, he was an environmental consultant with Eastern Research Group. While there, he provided analytical support to EPA in the areas of wastewater management and chemical policy for seven years. He holds a Master's and a Bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from Northeastern University in Boston, MA.

    Darren A. Lytle, Ph.D., P.E. - Dr. Lytle is an environmental engineer for the EPA's Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Water Supply and Water Resources Division where he serves as the Acting Branch Chief for the Treatment Technology Evaluation Branch. Since beginning work at EPA in 1991, Dr. Lytle’s primary goal has been to research the quality of drinking water. Over the years, he has investigated and published works on drinking water systems, including work on distribution system corrosion control and water quality (e.g., red water control, lead and copper corrosion control); filtration (emphasis on removal of particles, and microbial contaminants and pathogens from water); biological water treatment; and iron and arsenic removal.

  • Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) for Small Systems (June 28, 2016)
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    Federal RTCR Requirements Applicable to Small Systems (Presented by Cindy Y. Mack, EPA’s Office of Water). This presentation discussed the federal RTCR requirements applicable to small systems serving less than or equal to 1,000 persons. Routine, additional routine, and repeat sampling requirements, and events that trigger a Level 1 or Level 2 assessment were addressed. The presentation also included the actions that public water systems (PWSs) should take once an assessment is triggered.

    RTCR Implementation from a State Perspective: Trials and Triumphs (Presented by Mark J. Verbsky, Ohio EPA's Division of Drinking and Ground Waters, Southwest District Office.) . Implementation of the RTCR has presented most primacy agencies across the United States with a variety of challenges. Seasonal water system requirements, treatment technique triggers, Level 1 and Level 2 assessments, an E. coli maximum contaminant level (MCL) instead of a total coliform MCL, and a whole host of additional issues and protocols have been keeping primacy agencies very busy over the past three years. This presentation gave a brief glimpse into what Ohio EPA experienced and what has been developed in order to implement the RTCR in Ohio.

    About the Presenters

    Cindy Y. Mack - Cindy is an Environmental Protection Specialist and has worked in EPA’s Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water since 2002. She is currently the National Implementation Lead for the RTCR and Senior Project Manager of the Interstate Carrier Conveyance Program. Cindy has a B.S. in Public Health from the University of Massachusetts and a M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins University. She has over 20 years of experience working in both the private and public sectors in program/policy development and implementation. Specific policy areas have included PWS microbial rules; combined sewer/sanitary sewer overflows; and environmental justice, among others. In addition, Cindy was one of the principal rule writers of the Aircraft Drinking Water Rule..

    Mark J. Verbsky, R.S. - Mark is entering his 28th year in the public health field, with over 22 years at the Ohio EPA as a PWS inspector. He is a Registered Sanitarian and a certified Class 3 water treatment plant operator in the state of Ohio. His primary focus has been on small PWSs, and he is an active member of multiple workgroups and the American Water Works Association. This is Mark’s second time revising the Total Coliform Rule for Ohio: first from 1996 to 2000 and again from 2013 to present

  • Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs): Regulatory Issues and Solutions (June 14, 2016. Originally scheduled for April 26))
    Two children drinking from water fountain

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    Stage 2 Disinfectant Byproducts Regulatory Review and Implementation Challenges (Presented by Michael Finn, EPA's Office of Water). This presentation reviewed the Stage 2 Disinfectant and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBPR) monitoring and reporting requirements, Stage 2 monitoring plans and plan revisions, reduced and increased monitoring, consecutive system issues, and operational evaluations. It also reviewed the treatment technique requirements of the Stage 1 DBPR that PWSs must continue to satisfy.

    Small System DBP Challenges and Solutions in Washington State (Presented by Jolyn Leslie, Washington State Department of Health). Washington State has over 1,100 small community and non-transient non-community water systems that are required to comply with the DBP Rule and serve less than 3,300 population. Most of the DBP MCL exceedances in the State have been in these small systems. These systems include both surface water and groundwater sources. This presentation provided a summary of some of the water quality challenges facing these small systems and highlighted a few success stories.

    About the Presenters

    Michael Finn, P.E. - Michael is an Environmental Engineer with the Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water, Drinking Water Protection Branch. He joined EPA in 2001 to work on the development of the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, the Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Rule and the Groundwater Rule and the related guidance documents. Michael is currently working with states and public water systems on the implementation of those rules, microbial water treatment issues, alternative treatment technologies and water availability and water efficiency in public water systems. Prior to coming to EPA, he was with the California drinking water program as a field engineer in the San Francisco Bay area. Michael holds a Bachelor of Science in Environmental Resources Engineering from Humboldt State University in Arcata, CA. He is a licensed professional engineer in California and Maryland and a certified water treatment operator.

    Jolyn Leslie, P.E. - Jolyn is a regional engineer for the Washington State Department of Health Office of Drinking Water. She is a civil engineer with over 16 years of experience working with water systems. First as a Peace Corps volunteer in Honduras working on mainly small gravity fed water systems. For the last 14 years, she has been a regional engineer and is responsible for implementing the State’s Drinking Water Program in her assigned geographic region. She is also the regional DBP lead for the Northwest Regional Office. She is an active member of AWWA and volunteers both domestically and internationally for Water For People.

  • Responding to Harmful Algal Blooms, Optimization Guidelines, and Sampling for Utilities (May 31, 2016)
    Harmful algal bloom on Ohio River at Ironton drinking water facility intake.

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    Removal Capabilities of Common Treatment Processes and Facility Evaluation Strategies and Performance Improvement (Presented by Nicholas Dugan, EPA's Office of Research and Development). Harmful algal blooms (HABs), which include blooms of cyanobacteria, pose particular challenges and questions for small drinking water systems. Two of the most important are: “how well equipped is my facility to handle cyanobacterial cells and the toxins that may be released?” and “how can I improve my facility’s performance within rigid financial constraints?” This presentation reviewed the removal capacities of common processes used in drinking water treatment, presented a strategy for evaluating an existing treatment facility and discussed how to use this information to improve a facility’s performance.

    Source and Finished Water Monitoring Options and Their Limitations and Benefits (Presented by Heather Raymond, Ohio EPA) . There are a variety of tools that can be utilized to monitor a water system’s source and finished waters for HABs. Monitoring data can help a water system develop appropriate reservoir management strategies and optimize treatment for cyanotoxin removal. This presentation covered source and finished water monitoring options and their limitations and benefits. It also provided a few examples of how water systems in Ohio are using monitoring data to both focus reservoir management and optimize treatment following source and finished water cyanotoxin detections.

    About the Presenters

    Nicholas R. Dugan, P.E. - Nick is an environmental engineer with U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development/National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio, where he specializes in drinking water treatment. In addition to his work with cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins, he has performed treatment studies to evaluate the control of cryptosporidium, nitrate, perchlorate, pesticides, and disinfection byproduct precursors.

    Heather Raymond - Heather has almost 20 years of experience in Ohio EPA’s Division of Drinking and Ground Waters where she currently serves as the Harmful Algal Bloom Coordinator. She helped develop Ohio’s Harmful Algal Bloom Monitoring and Reporting Rules, the State of Ohio Recreation and Public Water System HAB Response Strategies, and HAB-related public water system guidance documents. She also co-teaches a practical workshop on HABs at Ohio State University's Stone Laboratory. She has helped water systems effectively respond to HABs in both their raw and finished drinking water.

  • Point of Use/Point of Entry (POU/POE) Treatment Devices (March 29, 2016)
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    Household Water Systems: Tailoring Treatment Alternatives to Contaminants in Groundwater and Distribution Systems (Presented by Craig Patterson, EPA's Office of Research and Development). This presentation highlighted research case studies on household water treatment systems. EPA’s ORD has been evaluating the performance of POU/POE treatment systems designed for use in homes and small businesses for many years. Research studies will highlight the capabilities of kitchen sink membrane and carbon filters and their application to a wide variety of chemical and microbiological contaminants in well and tap waters. The research studies were conducted at EPA’s Test and Evaluation Facility and at field locations.

    Point of Use/Point of Entry Case Studies (Presented by Cynthia Klevens, New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services). About 1 in 5 bedrock wells in New Hampshire have unsafe levels of Arsenic, while others exceed the standards for Uranium, Radium and/or Gross Alpha contaminants. Approximately 90% of NH’s non-transient systems serve less than 1,000 people, and rely on private septic systems for wastewater disposal. This presentation included state regulatory requirements along with case studies where POU / POE treatment was approved as the best alternative to achieve water system compliance, due to the inability of community systems to discharge residuals onsite, or the cost-effectiveness of treating only the potable water needs for very small NTNC systems.

    About the Presenters

    Craig Patterson, P.E. - Craig is an environmental engineer with EPA's Office of Research and Development. He has over 35 years of experience with federal environmental programs and environmental consulting firms. Over the past 13 years, Craig’s research emphasis has been on drinking water treatment technologies for small communities of less than 500 people. His research has focused mainly on emerging and innovative water treatment technologies in support of EPA regulatory requirements including household water system studies. This effort has included collaborative field studies on a wide variety of surface and groundwater sources with researchers in EPA Regions, states, local health departments, water utilities, private industry, and academia.

    Cynthia Klevens, P.E. - Cynthia is a chemical engineer with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services’ Drinking Water and Groundwater Bureau. She has 30 years’ experience in the environmental field, with half of that in drinking water treatment. Cynthia joined state government in 2005 to assist small public water systems and private wells with water treatment for arsenic, radionuclides and disinfection byproducts. Prior to that, she worked in the consulting industry. Cynthia also served as Technical Advisor for EPA’s Arsenic Demonstration Projects, and is a member of the NSF Joint Committee for Drinking Water Treatment Units.

  • Consumer Confidence Reports: Electronic Delivery and Best Practices (February 23, 2016)
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    The Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) Rule is a National Primary Drinking Water Regulation that requires community water systems (CWSs) to create annual drinking water reports and distribute them to customers and consumer by July 1st each year. Among other requirements, the CCRs contain information about detected contaminants and if there were any health-based or monitoring violations in the past year. In 2012 EPA conducted a Retrospective review of the CCR Rule in which EPA interpreted the language in the regulation to allow electronic delivery of the CCR if certain requirements are met. CWSs serving 100,000 or more persons must also post their current year’s report to a publicly accessible site on the Internet. In this webinar we will review traditional and electronic delivery methods for the CCR as well as best practices for formatting the CCR. We will also highlight the CCR iWriter, a tool that walks a CWS through a series of questions and produces a CCR. Lastly we will highlight improvements to the CCR Where You Live Webpage where a CWS can link the URL to their CCR that is already posted online to the EPA website.

    About the Presenters

    Jamie Harris - Jamie has been in the field of hydrology for more than 20 years. Her experience is related to water quality, water supply and regulatory issues both related to the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act. Jamie has worked as an environmental consultant overseas as well as in Maryland. She has also worked for the Southern Nevada Water Authority and Maryland Environmental Service at Maryland Department of the Environment. At EPA Jamie oversees the implementation of a number of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations including the CCR Rule, the Public Notification (PN) Rule, and the Chemical Phase Rules which includes over 65 Inorganic and Organic Contaminants.

    Adrienne Harris - Adrienne joined EPA in 2005 as an environmental scientist. She has worked in EPA’s Office of Water since 2009. She has served as a member of the Effective Rule Implementation Team managing the Stage 1 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule (DBPR), Stage 2 DBPR, CCR Rule and PN Rule. Prior to working in EPA Headquarters, Adrienne held similar duties as an environmental scientist with EPA Region 1. Adrienne holds a B.S. in Environmental Science from Spelman College and a M.E.M. in Environmental Management from Duke University. Adrienne currently serves as the Sustainable Systems Team Leader.

  • Uranium Standards in Drinking Water and Removal Technologies Research at Small Community Water Systems (February 2, 2016)
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    Uranium and health effects and uranium in drinking water standards. (Presented by Samuel Hernandez, EPA’s Office of Water). Community water systems must comply with the maximum contaminant levels established by the Radionuclides Rule for radium-226, radium-228, gross alpha particle activity, beta particle and photon radioactivity, and uranium. The Rule intends to reduce the consumer’s long term exposure to radiation in drinking water, thereby reducing the risk of cancer and improving public health protection. Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive element and is present in virtually all soil, rock and ground water sources. Long-term exposure to uranium in drinking water in excess of EPA’s standard may result in kidney toxicity. This presentation will include an overview of uranium and health effects, followed by uranium in drinking water standards, including specifics about monitoring requirements, determining compliance, and violations.

    Removal of uranium from drinking water by small system treatment technologies. (Presented by Thomas Sorg, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). Radionuclides, such as uranium, occur naturally as trace elements in rocks and soils; thus, they can be found in dissolved forms in ground waters, some of which are used as sources of drinking water. This presentation will include a short discussion of basic uranium chemistry followed by a discussion on small-system treatment technologies that are effective for uranium removal. These treatment technologies include coagulation/filtration, lime softening, anion exchange, activated alumina, and reverse osmosis. Both pilot- and full-scale treatment system information will be covered. The presentation will conclude with a discussion on residual disposal.

    About the Presenters

    Samuel Hernandez, P.E. - Sam is an environmental engineer with EPA’s Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW). He currently serves as the Drinking Water Radionuclides Rule manager, which includes responding to inquiries about the principles and applicability of the rule and providing support to states and to other EPA offices regarding the technical basis of the rule. Prior to joining EPA, Sam worked at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as an environmental project manager where he coordinated the development and publication of environmental impact statements and safety evaluation reports related to the renewal of operating licenses of nuclear power plants. Sam has a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Puerto Rico and a M.S. in Environmental Engineering from the University of Maryland.

    Thomas Sorg, PE, BCEE - Tom has over 51 years of experience with federal environmental programs. His experience includes the past 42 years with the drinking water research and development program of EPA, and 25 years as Chief of the Inorganics and Particulate Control Branch of the Drinking Water Research Division. Tom’s research emphasis has been on drinking water treatment technology for the removal of inorganic and radionuclide contaminants from water supplies, including the removal of arsenic. During the past 12 years, his research has focused mainly on treatment technologies to remove arsenic from drinking water in support of the revised arsenic MCL of 10 μg/L. This effort has included oversight of the EPA Arsenic Removal Full-Scale Demonstration Program.p>

  • Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water (December 15, 2015)
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    Identifying and solving lead issues from water systems with materials/device replacement in drinking water system configurations (Presented by Michael Schock, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). Identifying and assessing lead contamination and exposure potential in single-family residences is difficult enough, but doing the same kind of assessment and remediation in buildings, schools, and day care centers is even more challenging. It is of particular importance because of the absence of a threshold lead concentration for adverse health effects, as well as the elevated risk to infants and children. Wide variations of seasonal and diurnal water usage patterns, relatively low total water flow, and complex small-diameter piping networks having multiple lead-containing devices located in series in line and at multiple consumption endpoints, combine to make addressing lead contamination in building systems highly challenging. There is rarely, if ever, a “representative” sampling tap. This presentation reviews the nature of lead and copper occurrence and relationships to water quality and use, and then focuses on sampling strategies to identify and isolate the occurrence of leaded materials in building drinking water system configurations.

    Tool for identifying drinking water system and plumbing products that meet the lead free requirement of the Safe Drinking Water Act (Presented by Michelle Latham, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). In 2014, the definition of lead free in Section 1417 of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) was changed from not more than 8% lead content to not more than a weighted average of 0.25% lead with respect to the wetted surfaces of pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and plumbing fixtures. Although there is no mandatory federal requirement for lead free product testing or third-party certification under the SDWA as of December 2015, consumers can increase their level of confidence by purchasing products that have been certified as meeting the SDWA lead free requirement. Because there is not a single, uniform mark for identifying certification to lead content, it can be difficult to determine if a product is lead free. This presentation highlights a tool designed to help consumers identify lead free drinking water system and plumbing products that have undergone third-party certification testing.

    About the Presenters

    Michael R. Schock - Mike is a chemist with ORD’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory. He has spent 30 years of his career conducting drinking water research, including both inhouse and field research into drinking water treatment with emphasis on metal release mechanisms and predictive modeling, corrosion control, pipe scale/sediment and inorganic water analysis, contaminant accumulation and water quality in domestic plumbing and municipal distribution systems, and development of sampling strategies for metal contamination in building and premise plumbing. He has served on numerous advisory committees and has received more than 20 publication and research awards from EPA, New England Water Works Association, and the American Water Works Association, including the 2011 A.P. Black Research Award for lifetime achievement. Mike has a B.S. in Geology from Wright State and a M.S. in Geology from Michigan State.

    Michelle L. Latham - Michelle is a biologist with ORD’s Safe and Sustainable Water Resources Research Program, where she serves as the communications liaison. Michelle focuses on technical communication of research results and the facilitation of outreach activities on topics such as small drinking water systems, drinking water and wastewater treatment, aging water infrastructure, and source water protection. She also serves as a stakeholder advisory board member on communications and outreach committees for the University of Cincinnati. Michelle has a B.L.A, a B.S. in Biology, and a M.Ed. from Xavier University, an A.A.S. from Shoreline, and C.G.s from the Naval School of Health Sciences.

  • Treatability Database, Cost Models, and other Tools for Water Systems (November 24, 2015)
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    USEPA Cost Models and Treatability Database (Presented by Dr. Thomas F. Speth, EPA’s Office of Water). EPA recently developed new unit cost estimating models for drinking water treatment processes using a work breakdown structure (WBS) approach. The models estimate costs for a national regulation, and also provide individual water treatment facilities with tools to estimate costs for different compliance options. Assumptions and unit costs are clearly documented, resulting in a transparent process that stakeholders could easily understand and use. Specific features relevant to small systems are incorporated in the models and will be highlighted in this presentation. Furthermore, the integration of cost model parameter needs with EPA’s Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will also be discussed. The TDB will become a ready source for treatability data for various contaminants/treatment combinations, and it will contain process design and operating data to facilitate WBS use for cost estimation.

    Web-based applications to simulate drinking water inorganic chloramine chemistry (Presented by Dr. David Wahman, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). For almost 30 years, a reaction scheme typically termed the Unified Model has existed that describes inorganic chloramine formation and decay over a range of conditions applicable to drinking water. Even though a reasonable reaction scheme has existed, a widely and freely accessible implementation of the Unified Model has not, largely because of the requirement to program and solve the reaction scheme, preventing model implementation in a user-friendly environment where proprietary software or user modeling experience was not required. Two web-based applications (WBAs) relevant to drinking water practice were developed to (1) simulate inorganic chloramine formation and subsequent stability, including a simple inorganic chloramine demand reaction for organic matter and (2) generate chlorine breakpoint curves. The WBAs provide the user a free, interactive environment to explore and understand fundamental inorganic chloramine chemistry where the only requirement is a web browser and Internet connection to access the WBAs’ web pages. The WBAs’ implementation along with example uses will be presented.

    About the Presenters

    Thomas F. Speth, Ph.D., P.E. - Dr. Speth is a Professional Engineer who has worked in the field of water-treatment research in EPA/ORD for 29 years. He has a Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering from the University of Cincinnati, an M.S. in Civil & Environmental Engineering from Michigan Technological University, and a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Michigan Technological University. Dr. Speth is a member of the AWWA, ASCE, ACS, and IHSS. He has served as Trustee for AWWA's Water Quality & Technology Division, Associate Editor for ASCE's Journal of Environmental Engineering, and as a member of Journal AWWA’s Editorial Advisory Board. He is currently a Trustee of AWWA’s Water Science and Research Division. He has served as Branch Chief of ORD’s Treatment Technology Evaluation Branch from May 2005 to January 2009. From January 2009 to September 2015, he served as Division Director of ORD’s Water Supply and Water Resources Division. He is currently on a detail with EPA’s Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water as a Senior Engineering Advisor.

    David G. Wahman, Ph.D., P.E. - Dr. Wahman is an Environmental Engineer with EPA’s ORD in Cincinnati, Ohio. He is a registered Professional Engineer and received his B.S. in Civil Engineering from Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, an M.S.E. in Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, and a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. Following graduation, he was a Post-Doctoral fellow at the EPA before accepting a permanent position. He has a special interest in the application of molecular based tools, modeling, and biological treatment to address drinking water treatment and distribution system issues, and his research areas include biological removal of disinfection by-products from drinking water, biological drinking water treatment, distribution system nitrification, and chloramine chemistry.

  • Decentralized High-Rate Wastewater Treatment of Peak Wet Weather Flows (October 27, 2015)
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    Compendium of Performance Data for Facilities that Blend during Wet Weather (Presented by Kevin Weiss, EPA’s Office of Water). There are currently major knowledge gaps in the literature for the nature of effluent from water resource recovery facilities/wastewater treatment facilities that use blending to manage wet weather flows. There are also knowledge gaps for potential human health and water quality impacts associated with discharges of blended effluent. To help fill these gaps, EPA is developing a compendium of technical information to 1) provide an overview of the spectrum of design and operational options associated with treatment of wet weather flows, and 2) highlight performance data from facilities that blend, including those that provide auxiliary treatment and those that do not. To facilitate the development of the compendium, EPA is interested in obtaining published and unpublished data that describe the performance of facilities that blend and the performance under wet weather conditions of facilities that do not blend. In addition, EPA is interested in identifying additional sources of information that describe the potential impacts of blended discharges. This presentation will summarize the results of this effort.

    Evaluation of a Decentralized, High-Rate Wastewater Treatment Plant for Wet Weather Flows (Presented by Presented by Daniel J. Murray, Jr., P.E., BCEE, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). Urban wet weather flows into municipal wastewater collection systems, either intentional or unintentional, are significant challenges for wastewater utilities. During rain events, these dynamic and often unpredictable flows can result in rapid changes in the flow rates and volumes of wastewater that must be collected and treated. In many cases, high flow rates in collection systems can exceed system carrying capacity and result in a sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) or combined sewer overflow (CSO). In order to reduce or eliminate SSOs and CSOs, utilities are increasingly employing high rate treatment (HRT) systems. This project focused on evaluating the performance of HRT systems for removing contaminants related to wet weather flows. Specifically, this project evaluated the performance of ballasted flocculation technology combined with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology. Between January 2013 and May 2014, fifteen wet-weather related sampling events were performed at a wet weather treatment facility in southwest Ohio. This presentation will summarize the results of this effort.

    About the Presenters

    Kevin Weiss - Kevin is a Chemical Engineer with the Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Management, Water Permits Division. He joined the Water Permits Division in 1987, where he works on municipal wet weather issues and integrated planning. During this time, he has worked on the storm water regulations (Phase I), draft SSO/CMOM regulations, blending policies, the Integrated Planning Framework, and the November 24, 2014 Financial Capability Assessment Framework. Kevin holds a Master of Science in Chemical Engineering from Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh, PA, and a J.D. from George Washington University in Washington, DC.

    Daniel J. Murray, Jr., P.E., BCEE - Dan is a Senior Environmental Engineer with the Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Water Supply and Water Resources Division. He started his career with EPA in 1977, where he worked in EPA’s Regions 5 and 1. In 1987, he left EPA to work for the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority, where he led the Authority’s Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) control program. In 1990, he returned to EPA where he joined ORD in Cincinnati, OH. In 1995, he received the Gold Medal for Exceptional Service, EPA’s highest honor, for his work in supporting the development of the Agency’s CSO Policy. In 2005, he led the development and implementation of EPA’s Aging Water Infrastructure Research Program, a 5-year initiative based on the strategic asset management framework and the investigation and demonstration of emerging and innovative technologies. Dan holds a Master of Science in Civil/Environmental Engineering from Northeastern University in Boston, MA, and is a registered Professional Engineer in Massachusetts and Ohio, and a Board Certified Environmental Engineer.

  • Ultraviolet (UV) Disinfections Systems: Treatment of Groundwater for Small/Medium Sized Water Utilities (September 29, 2015)
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    UV Disinfection - A treatment option for Small and Medium Sized Systems for SDWA Compliance (Presented by Michael Finn, EPA’s Office of Water). Recent research, technology advancements and new drinking water regulations have brought significant attention to UV disinfection as an option for microbial treatment for small and medium sized public water systems. UV disinfection is an effective treatment for the inactivation of Cryptosporidium in treatment of surface water supplies. Surface water systems that are required to provide additional Cryptosporidium treatment based on the Long Term 2 Surface Water Treatment Rule may choose UV disinfection as a strategy to meet treatment requirements. The majority of public water systems (>90%) serve ground water and the majority (>90%) of ground water systems serves less than 3300 people. The Ground Water Rule requires treatment for viruses for ground water sources found to be vulnerable to fecal contamination. UV disinfection can provide effective virus treatment and appropriately sized UV disinfection systems for small water systems have become more available. To ensure effective treatment is being provided, validation of the UV doses provided and monitoring of operational measures to ensure effective treatment are needed.

    Evaluation of an Innovative Approach to Validation of UV Reactors for Disinfection in Drinking Water Systems (Presented by Jeffrey Adams, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection is an effective process for inactivating many microbial pathogens found in source waters with the potential as stand-alone treatment or in combination with other disinfectants. EPA provided guidance on the validation of UV reactors nearly a decade ago; however, there remains no standard approach for validating UV reactors to meet a 4-log (99.99%) inactivation of viruses. Because of lessons learned over the years, validation practices have been modified and changes in operation and monitoring of UV systems need to be addressed. Of particular challenge for medium-pressure UV is the monitoring of low-wavelength germicidal contributions for appropriate crediting of disinfection under varying reactor conditions of quartz sleeve fouling, lamp aging, and changes in UV absorbance of the water over time. This presentation will discuss EPA’s evaluation, in partnership with state and industry collaborators, of new approaches for validating UV reactors to meet groundwater and surface water pathogen inactivation, including viruses for low-pressure and medium-pressure UV systems.

    About the Presenters

    Michael Finn, P.E. - Michael is an Environmental Engineer with the Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water, Drinking Water Protection Branch. He joined EPA in 2001 to work on the development of the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, the Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Rule and the Groundwater Rule and the related guidance documents. Michael is currently working with states and public water systems on the implementation of those rules, microbial water treatment issues, alternative treatment technologies and water availability and water efficiency in public water systems. Prior to coming to EPA, he was with the California drinking water program as a field engineer in the San Francisco Bay area. Michael holds a Bachelor of Science in Environmental Resources Engineering from Humboldt State University in Arcata, CA. He is a licensed professional engineer in California and Maryland and a certified water treatment operator.

    Jeffrey Adams - Jeff is an environmental engineer with ORD’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Water Supply and Water Resources Division. Over the last decade he managed EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Drinking Water Systems Center, which conducted studies evaluating the performance and sustainability of water treatment and monitoring technologies, including filtration processes, membrane separation, adsorptive media, UV and disinfection processes, and advanced oxidation technologies. Jeff has managed, authored, and co-authored numerous technical articles and has served on American Water Works Association (AWWA) technical committees and AWWA Research Foundation project advisory committees. He currently serves as the assistance agreement manager for EPA supported Water Research Foundation and Water Environment Research Foundation research studies. He received a M.S. and B.S. in Civil/Environmental Engineering from the University of Cincinnati.

  • Distribution Operation Options for Small Systems to Address Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs) (August 18, 2015)
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    Evaluation of cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address total trihalomethane (TTHM) compliance. (Presented by Dr. Jonathan Pressman, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). This presentation will provide the results of an evaluation of cost-effective aeration technology solutions to address TTHM compliance at a water treatment plant clearwell. Prior to the evaluation, water utility systems with known TTHM MCL exceedances that lacked the technical expertise or financial ability to address the problem were identified. One of the systems was then selected based on source water quality, infrastructure type, and operations characteristics for the comparable aeration evaluation and testing. To assess their effectiveness at reducing TTHMs, multiple aeration technologies, including surface and spray aeration technologies, were evaluated to assess the rate of formation of DBPs through the system’s clearwell.

    Operational strategies for controlling the formation of DBPs in distribution systems (Presented by Alison Dugan, EPA’s Office of Water). There are several operational strategies which small system operators (who utilize free chlorine) can use to control, or minimize, the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBP) in their distribution system; these strategies are mainly associated with reducing water age in the system through strategic flushing, modifying tank operations and rerouting water. Equally important to controlling DBPs, is monitoring to develop an understanding of the issue, including understanding DBP levels entering the distribution system (i.e., either from the water treatment plant or through a master meter, for a consecutive system) and factors that impact DBP levels in the system. Within the system, oftentimes surrogate parameters can provide an indication of DBP formation and help operators assess the impact of their efforts to control DBPs. This presentation will discuss all of these topics.

    About the Presenters

    Jonathan Pressman, Ph.D., P.E. - Dr. Pressman is a research environmental engineer with ORD’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Water Supply and Water Resources Division, Treatment Technology Evaluation Branch located in Cincinnati, Ohio. His research interests include characterizing natural organic matter in drinking water sources with particular emphasis on disinfection byproduct formation, membrane processes for both drinking water treatment and natural organic matter concentration, and nitrification in drinking water distribution systems. Nitrification research includes special interests in molecular genetics and microbiological engineering. Dr. Pressman has a B.S. in civil engineering from Cornell University and a M.S. and Ph.D. in civil engineering from the University of Texas at Austin. He is a registered professional engineer in Ohio and Texas.

    Alison Dugan - Alison is an environmental engineer with EPA’s Technical Support Center, in Cincinnati, Ohio. As a member of the Agency’s drinking water treatment optimization team, one of her primary responsibilities is to develop approaches for water systems to optimize their existing operations and infrastructure to control disinfection byproduct formation in the plant and distribution system, while not compromising other treatment objectives. The optimization tools and approaches developed by the team are field-tested with small- to medium-sized water systems, and then demonstrated to the states that participate in one of the four EPA Regional Area-Wide Optimization Programs (AWOPs).

  • Corrosion Control for Drinking Water Systems (July 28, 2015)
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    Treatment, control, and assessment strategies for lead and copper release into drinking water (Presented by Michael R. Schock, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). This presentation is an overview of the most important water treatment strategies for the control of lead and copper release from drinking water plumbing materials and components. In addition to lead, copper, and combined treatment, this presentation also covered sampling to find lead and copper, the stagnation behavior of copper versus that of lead, the impact of pipe scale aging on copper release, and complications of metal contamination arising from accumulated deposits of iron, manganese, and aluminum on the lead or copper pipe surfaces. An overview on the nature of scales and deposits on lead and copper pipes in real water systems, which often differ from classical corrosion theory, and the implications for metal release control by requiring the addressing optimization of interacting treatment processes to assure simultaneous compliance was also presented.

    Requirements for optimizing corrosion control treatment (Presented by Brian D'Amico, EPA’s Office of Water). This presentation provided an overview of the existing requirements regarding Optimizing Corrosion Control Treatment in EPA’s Lead and Copper Rule regulation, including monitoring requirements and corrosion control treatment methods.

    About the Presenters

    Michael R. Schock - Mike is a chemist with ORD’s National Risk Management Research Laboratory in Cincinnati, OH. He has spent 30 years of his career conducting drinking water research, including both in-house and field research into drinking water treatment with emphasis on metal release mechanisms and predictive modeling, corrosion control, pipe scale/sediment and inorganic water analysis, contaminant accumulation and water quality in domestic plumbing and municipal distribution systems, and development of sampling strategies for metal contamination in building and premise plumbing. He has served on numerous advisory committees and has received more than 20 publication and research awards from EPA, New England Water Works Association, and the American Water Works Association, including the 2011 A.P. Black Research Award for lifetime achievement.

    Brian D'Amico - Brian is a chemical engineer who has spent the last ten years at EPA working on water regulations for both the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Clean Water Act. He is currently the team lead for the Regulations Implementing Section 1417 of the SDWA. Prior to his transition to drinking water, Brian worked on several effluent guidelines, including airport deicing and unconventional oil and gas.

  • Biological and Microbial Aspects of Septic System Pollution (June 30, 2015)
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    Fecal source identification of septic system pollution in receiving waters (Presented by Dr. Orin Shanks, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). In the United States, approximately 20% of all households are served by septic wastewater treatment systems. It is common for septic systems to fail due to age, design, poor operation and maintenance, and/or physical damage due to plant root infiltration. Direct discharge of waste into receiving waters with minimal or no treatment can pose a serious health risk when an impacted water source is used for recreation, a drinking water reservoir, irrigation, or aquaculture applications. This presentation 1) reviews the microbial composition of septic waste, 2) demonstrates the use of molecular technologies combined with geographic information system land use data to identify fecal pollution from failing septic systems in receiving waters, and 3) provides an overview of current EPA research activities on fecal source identification aspects of septic system pollution.

    Advanced Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Table Rock Lake Demonstration Project (Presented by Dr. Alfonso Blanco, EPA’s Office of Water). This presentation discusses a demonstration project for Table Rock Lake in the Ozark region of Missouri where wastewater discharges were entering the lake from failing septic systems, threatening the water supply because it received little or no treatment. This project illustrates how advanced wastewater treatment technologies combined with drip dispersal of the treated effluent into imported soil can be used as a solution to wastewater treatment problems in difficult site conditions. These advanced treatment technologies achieved very high removal rates for BOD5, phosphorus, and fecal coliform. The project also established a management system—Responsible Management Entity—for achieving sustainable system performance, as well as removing the responsibility of system maintenance from property owners and developers.

    About the Presenters

    Orin Shanks, Ph.D. - Dr. Shanks is a geneticist whose primary specialty is the application of molecular technologies for environmental microbiology. Over his years with EPA, he has investigated and published works on the identification of host-associated genetic markers of fecal pollution, development of quantitative real-time PCR methods, fate and transport of nucleic acids, as well as utility of molecular methods for ambient water quality management. Dr. Shanks received his undergraduate and Master’s degrees from the University of Wyoming and his Ph.D. from Oregon State University.

    Alfonso Blanco, Ph.D., P.E., DWRE - Dr. Blanco is an environmental engineer with 40 years of domestic and international experience on wastewater projects. Presently he is working for the EPA’s Office of Wastewater Management, Sustainable Communities Branch in Washington, DC. Mr. Blanco graduated with an Associate Degree in Mechanical Design Engineering from Wentworth Institute, a B.S. in Civil Engineering from Merrimack College, a Master’s Degree in Environmental Engineering from Tufts University, and a Ph.D. in Remote Sensing from George Mason University. Dr. Blanco has published in several peer review journals and is a Licensed Professional Engineer and a Diplomat in Water Resources Engineering.

  • Current Water Treatment and Distribution System Optimization for Cyanotoxins (May 26, 2015)
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    Treatment strategies to remove algal toxins from drinking water (Presented by Lili Wang, EPA’s Office of Water). Public water systems are encouraged to take an integrated approach to address potential algal toxin health concerns in drinking water, which includes source water control, monitoring, treatment, and communication. This presentation focuses on treatment strategies being adopted or considered by water treatment plants to remove algal toxins while meeting other treatment goals. The presentation also discussed on-going efforts at the Office of Water to help states and public water systems implement the algal toxin Health Advisories.

    Removal of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins through drinking water treatment (Presented by Nicholas Dugan, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). This presentation covers the control of intact cyanobacterial cells through particulate removal processes such as coagulation, sedimentation and filtration. The control of cyanobacterial toxins through oxidation and adsorption processes including, but not limited to, chlorine, ozone, and granular activated carbon will also be discussed. Finally, a case study based on data collected from multiple treatment facilities during EPA’s Office of Research and Development Lake Erie treatment plant sampling program will be presented. The study includes the examination of chlorophyll and toxin data to track the propagation of cells and their associated toxins through several treatment plants.

    About the Presenters

    Lili Wang, P.E. - Lili is an environmental engineer with EPA's Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Standards and Risk Management Division, Standards and Risk Reduction Branch. She joined EPA in 2011 to work on regulatory determination, the Six-Year Review of Microbial/Disinfection Byproducts Rules, the fluoride rule, and microbial and cyanotoxin water treatment issues. Lili came to EPA with 15 years of prior experience with environmental consulting firms providing research and development support to EPA, the U.S. Navy, and international clients on water treatment and contaminated site remediation. Lili is a registered professional engineer in Ohio.

    Nicholas Dugan, P.E. - Nick is an environmental engineer with EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Water Supply and Water Resources Division, Treatment Technology Evaluation Branch. In addition to ORD's Lake Erie treatment plant sampling program, he has performed or supervised bench- and pilot- scale treatment studies to evaluate the control of cyanobacteria, cyanobacteria toxins, cryptosporidium, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, nitrates, perchlorate, ammonia, and disinfection byproduct precursors through a variety of drinking water treatment processes. Nick is a member of the American Water Works Association and is registered as a professional engineer in Ohio.

  • Understanding End Water Quality in Hospitals and Other Large Buildings (April 28, 2015)
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    Use and effectiveness of various available technologies for the treatment and control of Legionella (Presented by César Cordero, EPA’s Office of Water). This presentation provides a brief overview of the EPA draft document, “Legionella: Current Knowledge on Treatment Technologies,” which will characterize the current body of knowledge regarding the use and effectiveness of various available technologies for the treatment and control of Legionella. The document will provide an overview on Legionella’s microbial, epidemiological and other characteristics, as well as describe various control approaches for the prevention and remediation of Legionella. The information on treatment technologies will include a characterization of their effectiveness, water quality issues, and recommended operational conditions based on the reviewed literature. The document could assist primacy agencies, affected facilities, and system operators in their decision-making process regarding measures to control for Legionella in building water systems.

    Water quality issues in large buildings and emerging treatment technologies for premise plumbing-related pathogens (Presented by Dr. Mark Rodgers, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) sets limits on water quality indicators for water in the distribution system. Once this distributed water enters a building or household, the responsibility of maintaining water quality shifts to the owners. The latest data for waterborne diseases indicates that premise plumbing-related outbreaks are increasing across the United States. This fact, and the legal ramifications of waterborne outbreaks, are leading hospital and hotel owners to address water quality in their buildings. This presentation discusses ORD’s investigation of water quality issues in large buildings, with the goal of providing information to building owners on how water quality changes as it moves through complex premise plumbing systems. The evaluation of emerging treatment technologies designed specifically to control premise plumbing-related microbial pathogens is also discussed.

    About the Presenters

    César Cordero - César joined the Standards and Risk Reduction Branch of EPA's Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water in 2007. During his time with EPA, he has been involved in the review of the Revised Total Coliform Rule and the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule. He has also been involved in the development of the Contaminant Candidate Lists as well as helping address issues related to emerging waterborne pathogens. César has a B.S. in Industrial Microbiology and an M.S. in Biology, both from the University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez.

    Mark Rodgers, Ph.D. - Dr. Rodgers is a supervisory microbiologist for EPA's Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Water Supply and Water Resources Division where he serves as the Acting Chief for the Microbial Contaminants Control Branch. In this role, he supervises microbiologists working on a diverse research program that includes the development of assays for determining sources of fecal contamination in source waters, the community composition of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems, the fate of pathogenic and indicator organisms in biosolids, and the effectiveness of various conventional and emerging drinking water disinfectants.

  • Small Water System Alternatives: Media and Membrane Filtration for Small Communities and Households (March 31, 2015)
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    Small water system compliance technologies for the treatment of regulated contaminants (Presented by Michael Finn, EPA’s Office of Water). In this presentation, Michael reviews the common and “best available” small water system compliance technologies for the treatment of regulated contaminants including microbial, chemical and radiological contaminants. The presentation includes regulatory operational and monitoring issues as well as specific small system concerns associated with the treatment technologies. Michael also discusses the ‘top three’ regulated contaminant compliance concerns for small water systems.

    Filtration alternatives for small communities and households (Presented by Craig Patterson, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). This presentation highlights research case studies on innovative and commercially available drinking water treatment alternatives for small community water systems. Emphasis is placed on media and membrane filtration technologies capable of meeting the requirements of the Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) and the Groundwater Rule. Information is also provided on household water treatment systems for removal of chemicals and pathogens from well water. The major source of information is from small drinking water research studies, including lessons learned over the past 12 years at the EPA Test and Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio and at field locations in several EPA Regions and states.

    About the Presenters

    Michael J. Finn, P.E. - Michael is an environmental engineer with EPA's Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water, Drinking Water Protection Branch. He joined EPA in 2001 to work on the development of the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, the Stage 2 Disinfection Byproducts Rule, and the Groundwater Rule and the related guidance documents. He is currently working with states and public water systems on the implementation of those rules, microbial water treatment issues, alternative treatment technologies and water availability, and water efficiency in public water systems. Prior to coming to EPA, he was with the California drinking water program as a field engineer in the San Francisco Bay area. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Environmental Resources Engineering from Humboldt State University in Arcata, CA. He is a licensed professional engineer in California and Maryland and a certified water treatment operator.

    Craig Patterson, P.E. - Craig is an environmental engineer with EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Water Supply and Water Resources Division, Water Quality Management Branch. He has over 30 years of experience with federal environmental programs and environmental consulting firms. Over the past 12 years, Craig’s research emphasis has been on drinking water treatment technologies for small communities of less than 500 people. His research has focused mainly on emerging and innovative water treatment technologies in support of EPA regulatory requirements. This effort has included collaborative field studies on a wide variety of surface and groundwater sources with researchers in EPA Regions, states, local health departments, water utilities, private industry, and academia.

  • Innovative Biological Treatment for Small Water Systems: Ammonia, Nitrites, and Nitrates (February 24, 2015)
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    Biological treatment process for the removal of ammonia from small water systems (Presented by Dr., Darren Lytle, Ph.D., EPA’s Office of Research and Development). Ammonia in source waters can cause water treatment and distribution system problems, many of which are associated with biological nitrification. Therefore, in some cases, the removal of ammonia from water is desirable. Biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrate and nitrate (nitrification) is well understood and common in wastewater processes. However, the biological filtration to convert ammonia to nitrate in drinking water applications in full-scale systems is limited in the United States. In this presentation, Dr. Lytle (1) discusses reasons why ammonia in source waters can be problematic to water treatment and distributions; (2) discusses drinking water treatment options; (3) provides an in-depth discussion of the biological ammonia treatment option (engineering design and practical treatment considerations); and (4) provides data from pilot- and full-scale biological ammonia treatment studies.

    Alternative preventative method to reduce nitrates/nitrites and cost (Presented by Mike Muse, EPA’s Office of Water). The Nature Conservancy and University of Illinois have determined a method to help provide clean drinking water to 70,000 people in Bloomington, IL. Lake Bloomington, one of two reservoirs that provide the city with its drinking water, has historically exceeded the nitrate Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/L. Ten years of the Conservancy’s and its partners’ extensive research has shown that wetlands constructed in targeted agricultural fields effectively remove 46% -90% of inflowing nitrates from tile drains that would otherwise enter adjacent streams and rivers. In this presentation, this Illinois case study is discussed, showcasing an alternative preventative method to reduce nitrates/nitrites and cost.

    About the Presenters

    Darren Lytle, Ph.D. - Dr. Lytle is an environmental engineer for the EPA's Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Water Supply and Water Resources Division where he serves as the Acting Branch Chief for the Treatment Technology Evaluation Branch. Since beginning work at EPA in 1991, Dr. Lytle’s primary goal has been to research the quality of drinking water. Over the years, he has investigated and published works on drinking water systems, including work on distribution system corrosion control and water quality (e.g., red water control, lead and copper corrosion control); filtration (emphasis on removal of particles, and microbial contaminants and pathogens from water); biological water treatment; and iron and arsenic removal.

    Mike Muse - Mike works within Source Water Protection and Climate Change in EPA’s Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water.

  • Research and Implementation of Arsenic Removal Technologies at Small Community Water Systems (January 27, 2015)
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    Arsenic treatment implementation (Presented by Jamie Harris, EPA’s Office of Water). This presentation provides an overview of the wide variety of challenges faced by small water systems to implementing arsenic treatment for compliance with the Arsenic Rule of the Safe Drinking Water Act.

    Performance and cost effectiveness of arsenic removal technologies for small drinking water systems (Presented by Thomas Sorg, EPA’s Office of Research and Development). This presentation provides a general overview of the effectiveness of arsenic removal technologies and their cost, including capital and operating costs. Emphasis is placed on the three technologies that are most commonly utilized by small systems: adsorptive media, iron removal, and coagulation/filtration. The major source of information provided is from EPA’s Arsenic Demonstration Program. This program collected performance and cost data from 50 full scale arsenic removal systems installed in 26 different states.

    About the Presenters

    Jamie Harris - Jamie has been in the field of hydrology for more than 20 years. Her experience is related to water quality, water supply and regulatory issues both related to the Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act. Jamie has worked as an environmental consultant overseas as well as in Maryland. She has also worked for the Southern Nevada Water Authority and Maryland Environmental Service at Maryland Department of the Environment. At EPA, Jamie oversees the implementation of a number of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations including the Chemical Phase Rules which includes over 65 Inorganic and Organic Contaminants, one of which is arsenic.

    Thomas Sorg, P.E., BCEE - Tom is an environmental engineer with EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Water Supply and Water Resources Division, Treatment Technology Evaluation Branch. He has over 51 years of experience with federal environmental programs. Tom's experience includes the past 42 years with the drinking water research and development program of EPA, and 25 years as Chief of the Inorganics and Particular Control Branch of the Drinking Water Research Division. His research emphasis has been on drinking water treatment technology for the removal of inorganic and radionuclide contaminants from water supplies, including the removal of arsenic. During the past 12 years, Tom's research has focused mainly on treatment technologies to remove arsenic from drinking water in support of the revised arsenic Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 μg/L. This effort has included oversight of the EPA Arsenic Removal Full-Scale Demonstration Program.