Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection
The documents identified below provide general guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites.
- Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection (PDF)(27 pp, 154 K)
EPA 540/R/97-013, OSWER 9355.0-69, NTIS: PB97-963301INX, August 1997
Describes key principles, expectations, and best practices (based on program experience) that should be considered during the Superfund remedy selection process. Three major policy areas are covered: human health risk; remedial alternatives; and ground water.
- A Guide to Selecting Superfund Remedial Actions (PDF)(6 pp, 643 K)
OSWER 9355.0-27FS, NTIS: PB90-273863INX, April 1990
Summarizes the statutory requirements of CERCLA remedy selection as specified in the revised NCP of 1990 and provides the corresponding EPA guidelines for analyzing and selecting Superfund remedies.
- A Guide to Principal Threat and Low Level Threat Wastes (PDF)(4 pp, 237 K)
OSWER 9380.3-06FS, NTIS: PB92-963345INZ, November 1991
Explains considerations of categorizing waste for which treatment or containment will generally be suitable. Provides definitions, examples, and ROD documentation requirements for waste that constitutes a principal or low level threat.
- The Role of Cost in the Superfund Remedy Selection Process (PDF)(8 pp, 196 K)
EPA 540-F-96-018, OSWER 9200.3-23FS, NTIS: PB96-963245, September 1996
Summarizes the current role of cost in the Superfund program as established by CERCLA, the NCP, and current guidance.
- Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment in Superfund Remedy Selection Decisions (PDF)(10 pp, 126 K)
OSWER 9355.0-30, April 1991
Provides guidance on how to use the baseline risk assessment to make risk management decisions such as determining whether remedial action under CERCLA Sections 104 or 106 is necessary. Clarifies the use of the baseline risk assessment in selecting appropriate remedies under CERCLA Section 121, promotes consistency in preparing site-specific risk assessments, and helps ensure that appropriate documentation from the baseline risk assessment is included in Superfund remedy selection documents.
- Land Use in the CERCLA Remedy Selection Process (PDF)(11 pp, 937 K)
OSWER 9355.7-04, May 1995
Presents additional information for considering land use in making remedy selection decisions under CERCLA at NPL sites.
- Reuse Assessments: A Tool to Implement the Superfund Land Use Directive (PDF)(24 pp, 83 K)
OSWER 9355.7-06P, June 2001
Reaffirms the directive "Land Use in the CERCLA Remedy Selection Process" (OSWER 9355.7-04) and extends its application to non-time-critical removal actions. The "Reuse Assessment" in Appendix I is introduced as a support tool during the land use assessment process.
- Selecting a Combined Response Action Approach for Noncontiguous CERCLA Facilities to Expedite Cleanups (PDF)(6 pp, 102 K)
OSWER 9355.3-14FS, April 1992
Section 104(d)(4) of CERCLA allows EPA to treat noncontiguous facilities as one site for the purpose of taking actions when the facilities are related geographically, or on the basis of the threat to human health or the environment. This fact sheet provides a series of questions and answers designed to explain the factors, benefits, and limitations associated with taking a "combined" response action approach.
- Coordination between RCRA Corrective Action and Closure and CERCLA Site Activities (PDF)(9 pp, 553 K)
- Focus Areas for Headquarters Support for Regional Decision-Making (PDF)(24 pp, 1.3 MB)
OSWER 9200.1-17, May 1996
Identifies selected issue areas that represent the current focus of OSRTI's national Regional coordination effort. A discussion of presumptive remedies is included as one of the focus areas.
- CERCLA/Superfund Orientation Manual (PDF)(177 pp, 1.3 MB)
EPA 542/R-92/005, NTIS: PB93-193852INZ, October 1992
Serves as a guide to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), and assists EPA and state personnel involved with hazardous waste remediation and emergency response. It provides a basic overview of the Superfund process with an emphasis in Superfund regulations and policies.
- Streamlining Federal Facility Cleanup
OSWER 9272.0-12, NTIS: PB97-963310, September 1998
Summarizes findings from the report entitled "Streamlining Initiatives: Impact of Federal Facilities Cleanup Process". These initiatives demonstrate cost, timesaving, and quality improvements and result in new, more flexible Superfund cleanups under the current regulatory and statutory frameworks.
- 2005 RCRA CERCLA Coordination memo (PDF)
OSWER 9272.0-22, December 2005
- Fitting the Pieces Together: The Role of EPA Offices in Federal Facilities Cleanup and Reuse (PDF)
EPA 505-F9-7001, June 1997
Details the role and purpose of the various EPA offices that are often involved in cleanup of contaminated federal facility sites.
Recommends approaches for regional remedial Superfund programs to consider when evaluating "greener cleanup activities" throughout the remedy selection process, including during response action selection and implementation. Regional managers should also consider these recommendations when evaluating non-time critical removal actions (NTCRAs).