Addition of 1-Bromopropane
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On November 23, 2015, EPA published a final rule that added
1-bromopropane to the TRI list of reportable chemicals.
1-Bromopropane has been classified as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen” by the National Toxicology Program in its 13th Report on Carcinogens document. Based on a review of the data in the Report on Carcinogens, EPA determined that
1-bromopropane meets the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) Section 313(d)(2)(B) statutory listing criteria because it can reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer in humans.
Basis for Adding 1-bromopropane
1-Bromopropane has been classified by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) in its 13th Report on Carcinogens (RoC) as “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.” EPA believes that
1-bromopropane meets the statutory listing criteria because it can reasonably be anticipated to cause cancer in humans.
Uses of 1-bromopropane
1-bromopropane is used as an aerosol solvent in asphalt, aircraft, and synthetic fiber manufacturing, as a vapor and immersion degreaser in metals, metal products, plastics, optics, and electronics manufacturing, and as a cleaning solvent for dry cleaning. In addition, 1-bromopropane can be used as an adhesive in laminates and foam products, and as a chemical intermediate in pharmaceuticals, pesticides, quaternary ammonium compounds, flavors, and fragrances.
National Toxicology Program and the Report on Carcinogens
The NTP is an interagency program within the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) headquartered at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The mission of the NTP is to evaluate chemicals of public health concern by developing and applying tools of modern toxicology and molecular biology, and includes the evaluation of chemicals for their potential to cause cancer in humans.
As part of their cancer evaluation work, the NTP periodically publishes their RoC document. The RoC was mandated by the U.S. Congress, as part of the Public Health Service Act (Section 301(b)(4), as amended). The RoC is an informational scientific and public health document that identifies chemicals that may pose a carcinogenicity hazard to human health. The NTP RoC classifies chemicals as either “known to be a human carcinogen” or “reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.”
Advantage of Using RoC Assessments
By using the NTP RoC assessments EPA is taking advantage of readily available, high-quality assessments that provide strong evidence to support adding a chemical to the TRI list. The NTP RoC review process includes evaluations by scientists from the NTP, other federal health research and regulatory agencies (including EPA), and nongovernmental institutions. The RoC review process includes external peer review and several opportunities for public comment. The specific data used by the NTP to determine whether a chemical is “Known To Be Human Carcinogen” or “Reasonably Anticipated To Be Human Carcinogen” are consistent with data used by EPA to evaluate chemicals for their potential to cause cancer and classify chemicals as either “Carcinogenic to Humans” or “Likely to Be Carcinogenic to Humans”.
EPA's Review of 1-bromopropane Toxicity Data
EPA reviewed the NTP RoC chemical profile and supporting material for 1-bromopropane. Given NTP’s extensive reviews and expertise, EPA’s review focused on ensuring that there were no inconsistencies with how the Agency would consider the available data. EPA also reviewed available production and use information for 1-bromopropane to determine whether it is expected to be manufactured, processed, or otherwise used in quantities that would exceed TRI reporting thresholds.
Final rule (PDF)(9 pp, 280 K, About PDF)
Proposed rule (PDF)(7 pp, 296 K, About PDF)
EPA estimates that 140 facilities will be affected by this final rule. These 140 facilities are expected to file 140 TRI reporting forms containing release and waste management data for 1-bromopropane.
1-bromopropane is reportable for the 2016 calendar year, with the first reporting forms due from TRI facilities by July 1, 2017.