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CADDIS Publications

Backing up the CADDIS site are publications in the open literature by the Causal Analysis Team. These publications provide a depth of discussion and analysis that cannot be included on a web site, and they show how the CADDIS tools and inferential approach has been extended to related assessment activities such as criteria setting.

The publications are organized into four categories:

For publications concerning causality by other authors, see About Causal Assessment.

  • Norton, SB, SM Cormier, and GW Suter II. 2014. Ecological Causal Assessment. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Barbour M, SB Norton, R Preston, and K Thornton (Eds). 2004. Ecological Assessment of Aquatic Resources: Linking Science to Decision-Making. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL.
  • Cormier SM, SB Norton, and GW Suter II. 2003. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Stressor Identification Guidance: a process for determining the probable causes of biological impairments. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 9:1431-1444.
  • Cormier SM and JJ Messer. 2004. Opportunities and challenges in surface water quality monitoring. Pp. 217-233 in: Wiersma GB (Ed). Environmental Monitoring. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Cormier SM. 2006. Ecoepidemiology: a means to safeguard ecosystem services that sustain human welfare. Pp. 57-72 in: Arapis G, N Goncharova, and P Baveye (Eds). Ecotoxicology, Ecological Risk Assessment and Multiple Stressors: NATO Security through Science Series. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
  • Cormier S, B Blaney, M Chang, S Lehman, M Morrison, C Nietch, and J Williams. 2006. Science of integrated watershed management: linking pollution control practice with water quality. In: Wichelns D (Ed). Innovations in Reducing Nonpoint Source Pollution: Methods, Policies, Programs, and Measurement. Proceedings of a conference organized by the Rivers Institute at Hanover College, November 28-30, Indianapolis, IN.
  • Cormier SM. 2008. A synopsis of immediate and deliberate environmental assessments. Pp. 21-29 in: Linkov I, E Ferguson, VS Magar (Eds). Real-Time and Deliberative Decision Making. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
  • Cormier SM and GW Suter II. 2008. A framework for fully integrating environmental assessments. Environmental Management 42:543-556. 
  • Cormier SM, GW Suter II, and SB Norton. 2010. Causal characteristics for ecoepidemiology. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 16:53-73.
  • Dorward-King EJ, GW Suter II, LA Kapustka, DR Mount, DK Reed-Judkins, SM Cormier, SD Dyer, MG Luxon, R Parish, and GA Burton Jr. 2001. Distinguishing among factors that influence ecosystems. Pp. 1-26 in: Baird DJ and GA Burton Jr. (Eds). Ecological Variability: Separating Natural from Anthropogenic Causes of Ecosystem Impairment. SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL.
  • Linkov I, D Loney, S Cormier, FK Satterstrom, and T Bridges. 2009. Weight-of-evidence evaluation in environmental assessment: Review of qualitative and quantitative approaches. Science of the Total Environment 407:5199-5205.
  • Norton SB, SM Cormier, M Smith, RC Jones, and M Schubauer-Berigan. 2002. Predicting levels of stress from biological assessment data: empirical models from the eastern Corn Belt plains. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21(6):1168-1175.
  • Norton SB, L Rao, GW Suter II, and SM Cormier. 2003. Minimizing cognitive errors in site-specific causal analyses. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 9:213-230.
  • Norton SB, SM Cormier, and GW Suter II. 2002. The easiest person to fool. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21:1099-1100.
  • Norton SB, SM Cormier, and GW Suter II. 2005. CADDIS: A system to help investigators determine causes of biological impairments. Proceedings of TMDL 2005, June 25-27, Philadelphia, PA . Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, VA.
  • Norton SB, SM Cormier, GW Suter II, K Schofield, L Yuan, P Shaw-Allen, and CR Ziegler. 2009. CADDIS: The causal analysis/diagnosis decision support system. Pp. 351-374 in Marcomini A, GW Suter II and A Critto (Eds). Decision Support Systems for Risk Based Management of Contaminated Sites. Springer Verlag, NY.
  • Suter GW II, SB Norton, and S Cormier. 2002. A method for inferring the causes of observed impairments in aquatic ecosystems. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21:1101-1111.
  • Suter GW II, S Cormier, and S Norton. 2006. Ecological epidemiology and causal analysis. Pp. 39-68 in: Suter GW II (Ed). Ecological Risk Assessment, 2nd edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • Suter GW II. 2006. Ecological risk assessment and ecological epidemiology for contaminated sites. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 12:31-38.
  • Suter GW II, SB Norton, and SM Cormier. 2007. CADDIS: A system to help investigators determine the causes of biological impairments in aquatic systems. Watershed & Wet Weather Technical Bulletin 12(2):8-12.
  • Suter GW II. 2009. Causal inference for ecological impairments. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:129. [letter to the editor]
  • Suter GW II. 2009. Indicators of what for what? Environmental Bioindicators 4:1-3. [invited editorial]
  • Suter GW II, SB Norton, and SM Cormier. 2010. The science and philosophy of a method for assessing environmental causes. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 16:19-34.
  • Suter GW II and SM Cormier. 2010. When is a formal assessment process worth while? Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 16:1-3.
  • U.S. EPA. 2000. Stressor identification guidance document. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA/822/B-00/025.
  • U.S. EPA. 2002. Summary report for the workshop on the causal analysis/diagnosis decision information system (CADDIS). EPA/600/R-02/078.
  • U.S. EPA. 2004. Development Plan for the Causal Analysis/Diagnosis Decision Information System (CADDIS). EPA/600/R-03/074.

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  • Field LJ, DD MacDonald, SB Norton, CG Ingersoll, CG Severn, D Smorong, and R Lindskoog. 2002. Predicting amphipod toxicity from sediment chemistry using logistic regression models. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21(9):1993-2005.
  • Griffith MB and M Kravitz. 2008. Relationships among exceedences of sediment guidelines, the results of ambient sediment toxicity tests and community metrics in estuarine systems. Estuaries and Coasts 31:101-114.
  • Griffith MB, BH Hill, AT Herlihy, and PR Kaufmann. 2002. Multivariate analysis of periphyton assemblages in relation to environmental gradients in Colorado Rocky Mountain streams. Journal of Phycology 38:1-13.
  • Griffith MB, JM Lazorchak, and AT Herlihy. 2004. Relationships among exceedences of metals criteria, the results of ambient bioassays and community metrics in mining impacted streams. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23:1786-1795.
  • Griffith MB, P Husby, RK Hall, PR Kaufmann, and BH Hill. 2003. Analysis of macroinvertebrate assemblages in lotic habitats of California’s Central Valley. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 82:281-309.
  • Griffith MB, PR Kaufmann, AT Herlihy, and BH Hill. 2001. Analysis of macroinvertebrate assemblages in relation to environmental gradients in Rocky Mountain streams. Ecological Applications 11:489-505.
  • Griffith MB, FB Daniel, MA Morrison, ME Troyer, JM Lazorchak, and JP Schubauer-Berigan. 2009. Linking excess nutrients, light, and fine bedded sediments to impacts on faunal assemblages in headwater agricultural streams. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 45:1475-1492.
  • Norton SB, S Cormier, M Smith, RC Jones, MK Schubauer-Berigan. 2002. Predicting levels of stress from biological assessment data: empirical models from the eastern Corn Belt plains, Ohio USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21(6):1168-1175.
  • Pollard AI and LL Yuan. 2006. Community response patterns: evaluating benthic invertebrate composition in metal-polluted streams. Ecological Applications 16:645-655.
  • Pollard AI and LL Yuan. 2010. Assessing the consistency of benthic invertebrate community response metrics: A comparison of trait- and identify-based measures. Freshwater Biology 55:1420-1429.
  • Smith EP, T Robinson, LJ Field, and SB Norton. 2003. Predicting sediment toxicity using logistic regression: a concentration-addition approach. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 22(3):565-575.
  • Stevenson RJ, BH Hill, AT Herlihy, LL Yuan, and SB Norton. 2008. Algae-P relationships, thresholds, and frequency distributions guide nutrient criterion development. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 27:783-799.
  • U.S. EPA. 2005. Predicting toxicity to amphipods from sediment chemistry. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC. EPA/600/R-04/030.
  • U.S. EPA. 2005. Methods/Indicators for Determining When Metals are the Cause of Biological Impairments of Rivers and Streams: Species Sensitivity Distributions and Chronic Exposure Response Relationships from Laboratory Data. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH. NCEA-C-1494.
  • Yuan LL. 2005. Source of bias in weighted average inferences of environmental conditions. Journal of Paleolimnology 34:245-255.
  • Yuan LL. 2006. Estimation and Application of Macroinvertebrate Tolerance Values. EPA/600/P-04/116A, Washington, DC.
  • Yuan LL. 2006. Theoretical predictions of observed to expected ratios in RIVPACS-type predictive model assessments of stream biological conditions. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 25:841-850.
  • Yuan LL. 2007. Effects of measurement error on inferences of environmental conditions. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26:152-163.
  • Yuan LL. 2007. Maximum likelihood method for predicting environmental conditions from assemblage composition: The R package bio.infer. Journal of Statistical Software 22: Article 3.
  • Yuan LL. 2007. Using biological assemblage composition to infer the values of covarying environmental factors. Freshwater Biology 52:1159-1175.
  • Yuan LL and SB Norton. 2004. Assessing the Relative Severity of Stressors at a Watershed Scale. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 98:323-349.
  • Yuan LL and SB Norton. 2003. Comparing responses of macroinvertebrate metrics to increasing stress. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 22:308-322.
  • Yuan LL, AI Pollard, and DM Carlisle. 2009. Using propensity scores to estimate the effects of insecticides on stream invertebrates from observational data. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 28:1518–1527.

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  • Bailey J, B Lowman, C Boschen, J Burton, J Gerritsen, L Zheng, and S Cormier. 2010. Inferring Causes of Biological Impairment in the Clear Fork Watershed, West Virginia. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH. EPA/600/R-08/146.
  • Bellucci C, G Hoffman, and S Cormier. 2010. An Iterative Approach for Identifying the Causes of Reduced Benthic Macroinvertebrate Diversity in the Willimantic River, Connecticut. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH. EPA/600/R-08/144.
  • Cormier SM, SB Norton, GW Suter II, D Altfater, and B Counts. 2002. Determining the causes of impairment in the Little Scioto River, Ohio: Part II. Characterization of causes. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21:1125-1137.
  • Haake D, MT Wilton, K Krier, AJ Stewart, and SM Cormier. 2010. Causal assessment of biological impairment in the Little Floyd River, Iowa, USA. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 16:116-148.
  • Haake D, MT Wilton, K Krier, T Isenhart, J Paul, A Stewart, and SM Cormier. 2010. Stressor Identification in an Agricultural Watershed: Little Floyd River, Iowa. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH. EPA/600/R-08/131.
  • Lussier SM, SN Dasilva, M Charpentier, JF Heltshe, SM Cormier, DJ Klemm, M Chintal, and S Jayaraman. 2008. The influence of suburban land use on habitat and biotic integrity in Rhode Island streams. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 139(1-3):119-136.
  • Norton SB, SM Cormier, GW Suter II, B Subramanian, E Lin, D Altfater, and B Counts. 2002. Determining the causes of impairment in the Little Scioto River, Ohio. Part I: Listing candidate causes and analyzing evidence. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 21:1112-1124.
  • Norton SB, SM Cormier, M Smith, and RC Jones. 2000. Can biological assessments discriminate among types of stress? A case study from the Eastern Cornbelt Plains ecoregion. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 19:1113-1119.
  • U.S. EPA and Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 2007. Causal Analysis of Biological Impairment in Long Creek, a Sandy-Bottomed Stream in Coastal Southern Maine. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA/600/R-06/065F.
  • U.S. EPA. 2007. Workshop Report: Causal Analysis of Shenandoah/Potomac Fish Kills. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH. NCEA-C-1971.
  • U.S. EPA. 2008. Analysis of the Causes of a Decline in the San Joaquin Kit Fox Population on the Elk Hills, Naval Petroleum Reserve #1, California. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH. EPA/600/R-08/130.
  • Wiseman CD, M LeMoine, and S Cormier. 2010. Assessment of probable causes of reduced aquatic life in the Touchet River, Washington, USA. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 16:87-115.
  • Wiseman CD, M LeMoine, R Plotnikoff, J Diamond, A Stewart, and S Cormier. 2010. Identification of Most Probable Stressors to Aquatic Life in the Touchet River, Washington. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment, Cincinnati, OH. EPA/600/R-08/145.

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  • Cormier SM. 2006. Eco-epidemiology: an approach for developing water quality criteria. SETAC Globe. July/August: 22-23.
  • Cormier SM, JF Paul, RL Spehar, P Shaw-Allen, WJ Berry, and GW Suter II. 2008. Using field data and weight of evidence to develop water quality criteria. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 4(4):490-504.
  • Cormier SM, P Shaw-Allen, JF Paul, RL Spehar. 2008. Estimation of effect thresholds for the development of water quality criteria. Pp. 159-178 in: Linkov I, E Ferguson, VS Magar (Eds). Real-Time and Deliberative Decision Making, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
  • Paul JF and ME McDonald. 2005. Development of empirical, geographically specific water quality criteria: A conditional probability analysis approach. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 41(5):1211-1223.
  • Paul JF, SM Cormier, W Berry, P Kaufmann, R Spehar, D Norton, R Cantilli, R Stevens, W Swietlik, and B Jessup. 2007. Developing water quality criteria for suspended and bedded sediments—illustrative example application. Pp. 24-42 in: Water Environment Federation TMDL 2007 Conference Proceedings, Bellevue, Washington.
  • Paul JF, SM Cormier, WJ Berry, PR Kaufmann, RL Spehar, DJ Norton, RE Cantilli, R Stevens, WF Swietlik, BK Jessup. 2008. Developing water quality criteria for suspended and bedded sediments—illustrative example application. Water Practice 2:1-17.
  • Suter GW II and SM Cormier. 2008. What is meant by risk-based environmental quality criteria? Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 4(4):486–489.
  • U.S. EPA. 2006. Framework for Developing Suspended and Bedded Sediments Water Quality Criteria. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA-822-R-06-001.
  • Yuan LL. 2010. Estimating the effects of excess nutrients on stream invertebrates from observational data. Ecological Applications 20(1):110-125.

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