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Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ)

CMAQ Involvement in Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative

The Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), started in 2008 by the U.S. EPA, Environment and Climate Change Canada, and the European Commission Joint Research Center (JRC), has had as its primary goal the collaboration of the European and North American regional scale air quality modeling communities on the topic of model evaluation (Rao et al., 2011). The key elements driving the AQMEII process are regular dedicated workshops, the organization of international model evaluation studies, and the dissemination of findings from these studies in the peer-reviewed literature. Representatives from the U.S. EPA and JRC serve as co-chairs of the activity.

To date, AQMEII has completed three phases of collaborative model evaluation and intercomparison activities and is currently organizing a fourth phase. These collaborations involved a total of 37 groups from 17 countries. Besides co-chairing AQMEII with our partners from the JRC, our group also contributes CMAQ simulations to these collaborative activities, allowing us to compare various aspects of CMAQ to other state-of-science regional air quality models used by the North American and European modeling communities. The data generated by AQMEII is available to members of the scientific community interested in furthering the development of model evaluation techniques (Galmarini and Rao, 2011).  Data can be accessed through the AQMEII website hosted by JRC.

Map showing country locations of AQMEII members

In the first phase of AQMEII (2010-2012), chemical transport models were applied by different groups over the North American and European continents and extensively evaluated based on the comprehensive model evaluation framework presented by Dennis et al. (2010). This framework promotes a gradual and fit-for-purpose multi-stage evaluation process that includes operational, diagnostic, dynamic and probabilistic (i.e. uncertainty) evaluation. While all these model evaluation modes were employed in Phase 1, most of the contributions focused on operational and probabilistic evaluation as noted in Schere et al. (2012), who reflected on lessons learned from that activity. 

Phase 2 of AQMEII (2012 – 2014) focused on applying and evaluating on-line coupled or integrated chemistry transport models and meteorological models. Such modeling systems attempt to close some or all of the feedback loops that exist between atmospheric dynamics and composition. The model evaluation framework presented by Dennis et al. (2010) also formed the basis for the work under AQMEII Phase 2. Compared to Phase 1, contributions covered a fuller range of this framework, most notably diagnostic evaluation as well as some aspects of dynamic and probabilistic evaluation. Some of the key findings from Phase 2 of AQMEII were:

  •  It is important to include interactions between meteorology and chemistry (especially aerosols and ozone) in online coupled models
  • Aerosol indirect and direct effects often counteract each other, direct effects are weaker on the annual scale
  • The aerosol indirect effect (cloud microphysics implementation) is a prime cause of model differences
  • The representation of aerosol indirect effects needs to be further developed and improved in online coupled models
  • Inter-model variability typically is greater than the feedback effects simulated with a given model. This last finding implies that factors other than feedback effects such as emissions, boundary conditions, and process representations of chemistry and/or transport remain the key determinants for overall model performance.

Phase 3 of AQMEII (2014-2018) was aimed at applying and comparing modeling techniques to provide information on the impact of long-range transport on regional air quality. Modeling this phenomenon requires representing relevant processes at hemispheric-to-regional scales, either by using global or linked global-regional scale modeling systems. AQMEII contributed to coordinated modeling exercises to apply and intercompare these modeling approaches in partnership with the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (HTAP) and the Model Intercomparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia). Results were published in the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics in a special issue entitled "Global and regional assessment of intercontinental transport of air pollution: results from HTAP, AQMEII and MICS". The special issue contains publications that investigate various aspects of modeling intercontinental transport of air pollution such as publications evaluating the joint HTAP, AQMEII and MICS modeling experiments, publications developing new methodologies to assess intercontinental transport or air pollution, and publications describing and evaluating observational and emission data sets used to study intercontinental transport.

Phase 4 of AQMEII (starting in 2019) will focus on performing systematic inter-comparisons of atmospheric deposition estimates from a variety of modeling systems used in the U.S. and Europe. This activity will help more rebustly characterize the uncertainties in current estimates of this important atmospheric sink process, identify key knowledge gaps, and study implications for the use of these estimates for ecological assessments.

Related Links

References

Dennis, R., Fox, T., Fuentes, M., Gilliland, A., Hanna, S., Hogrefe, C., Irwin, J., & Venkatram, A. (2010). A framework for evaluating regional-scale numerical photo-chemical modeling systems. Environ. Fluid Mechanics, 10(4), 471–489.

Galmarini, S. and S. T. Rao (2011). The AQMEII Two-Continent Regional Air Quality Model Evaluation Study: Fueling Ideas with Unprecedented Data. Atmos. Env., 45, 2464

Rao, S.T., S. Galmarini, and K. Pucket (2011). Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII): Advancing the State of the Science in Regional Photochemical Modeling and Its Applications, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 92, 23-30, doi:10.1175/2010BAMS3069.1

Schere, K., Vautard, R., Solazzo, E., Hogrefe, C., & Galmarini, S. (2012). Results and Lessons Learned from Phase 1 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). EM: Air and Waste Management Associations Magazine for Environmental Managers 7, 30-37.

Publications

  • AQMEII Phase 1 Publications

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    S. Galmarini, S.T. Rao, D.G. Steyn, Preface, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 1-3, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.001.

    George Pouliot, Thomas Pierce, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Martijn Schaap, Michael Moran, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Comparing emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets between Europe and North America for the AQMEII project, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 4-14, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.12.041.

    Robert Vautard, Michael D. Moran, Efisio Solazzo, Robert C. Gilliam, Volker Matthias, Roberto Bianconi, Charles Chemel, Joana Ferreira, Beate Geyer, Ayoe B. Hansen, Amela Jericevic, Marje Prank, Arjo Segers, Jeremy D. Silver, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, S.T. Rao, Stefano Galmarini, Evaluation of the meteorological forcing used for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) air quality simulations, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 15-37, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.065.

    Kenneth Schere, Johannes Flemming, Robert Vautard, Charles Chemel, Augustin Colette, Christian Hogrefe, Bertrand Bessagnet, Frederik Meleux, Rohit Mathur, Shawn Roselle, Rong-Ming Hu, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, S. Trivikrama Rao, Stefano Galmarini, Trace gas/aerosol boundary concentrations and their impacts on continental-scale AQMEII modeling domains, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 38-50, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.09.043.

    S. Galmarini, R. Bianconi, W. Appel, E. Solazzo, S. Mosca, P. Grossi, M. Moran, K. Schere, S.T. Rao, ENSEMBLE and AMET: Two systems and approaches to a harmonized, simplified and efficient facility for air quality models development and evaluation, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 51-59, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.08.076.

    Efisio Solazzo, Roberto Bianconi, Robert Vautard, K. Wyat Appel, Michael D. Moran, Christian Hogrefe, Bertrand Bessagnet, Jørgen Brandt, Jesper H. Christensen, Charles Chemel, Isabelle Coll, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Joana Ferreira, Renate Forkel, Xavier V. Francis, George Grell, Paola Grossi, Ayoe B. Hansen, Amela Jeričević, Lukša Kraljević, Ana Isabel Miranda, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Guido Pirovano, Marje Prank, Angelo Riccio, Karine N. Sartelet, Martijn Schaap, Jeremy D. Silver, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Julius Vira, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Greg Yarwood, Junhua Zhang, S.Trivikrama Rao, Stefano Galmarini, Model evaluation and ensemble modelling of surface-level ozone in Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 60-74, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.003.

    Efisio Solazzo, Roberto Bianconi, Guido Pirovano, Volker Matthias, Robert Vautard, Michael D. Moran, K. Wyat Appel, Bertrand Bessagnet, Jørgen Brandt, Jesper H. Christensen, Charles Chemel, Isabelle Coll, Joana Ferreira, Renate Forkel, Xavier V. Francis, Georg Grell, Paola Grossi, Ayoe B. Hansen, Ana Isabel Miranda, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Marje Prank, Karine N. Sartelet, Martijn Schaap, Jeremy D. Silver, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Julius Vira, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Greg Yarwood, Junhua Zhang, S. Trivikrama Rao, Stefano Galmarini, Operational model evaluation for particulate matter in Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 75-92, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.02.045.

    G. Pirovano, A. Balzarini, B. Bessagnet, C. Emery, G. Kallos, F. Meleux, C. Mitsakou, U. Nopmongcol, G.M. Riva, G. Yarwood, Investigating impacts of chemistry and transport model formulation on model performance at European scale, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 93-109, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.12.052.

    Ralf Wolke, Wolfram Schröder, Roland Schrödner, Eberhard Renner, Influence of grid resolution and meteorological forcing on simulated European air quality: A sensitivity study with the modeling system COSMO–MUSCAT, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 110-130, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.02.085.

    Karine N. Sartelet, Florian Couvidat, Christian Seigneur, Yelva Roustan, Impact of biogenic emissions on air quality over Europe and North America, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 131-141, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.046.

    K. Wyat Appel, Charles Chemel, Shawn J. Roselle, Xavier V. Francis, Rong-Ming Hu, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, S.T. Rao, Stefano Galmarini, Examination of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model performance over the North American and European domains, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 142-155, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.11.016.

    J. Brandt, J.D. Silver, L.M. Frohn, C. Geels, A. Gross, A.B. Hansen, K.M. Hansen, G.B. Hedegaard, C.A. Skjøth, H. Villadsen, A. Zare, J.H. Christensen, An integrated model study for Europe and North America using the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model with focus on intercontinental transport of air pollution, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 156-176, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.01.011.

    Uarporn Nopmongcol, Bonyoung Koo, Edward Tai, Jaegun Jung, Piti Piyachaturawat, Chris Emery, Greg Yarwood, Guido Pirovano, Christina Mitsakou, George Kallos, Modeling Europe with CAMx for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII), Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 177-185, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.11.023.

    Robert C. Gilliam, James M. Godowitch, S. Trivikrama Rao, Improving the horizontal transport in the lower troposphere with four dimensional data assimilation, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 186-201, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.064.

    Renate Forkel, Johannes Werhahn, Ayoe Buus Hansen, Stuart McKeen, Steven Peckham, Georg Grell, Peter Suppan, Effect of aerosol-radiation feedback on regional air quality – A case study with WRF/Chem, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 202-211, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.009.

    J. Ferreira, A. Rodriguez, A. Monteiro, A.I. Miranda, M. Dios, J.A. Souto, G. Yarwood, U. Nopmongcol, C. Borrego, Air quality simulations for North America - MM5–CAMx modelling performance for main gaseous pollutants, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 53, June 2012, Pages 212-224, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.10.020.

    Schere, K., R. Vautard, E. Solazzo, C. Hogrefe, and S. Galmarini, 2012. Results and Lessons Learned from Phase 1 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). EM: Air and Waste Management Associations Magazine for Environmental Managers. Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, (7):30-37, July 2012.

    Rao, S.T., R. Mathur, C. Hogrefe, T. Keating, F. Dentener, and S. Galmarini, 2012. Path Forward for the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII). EM: Air and Waste Management Associations Magazine for Environmental Managers 7:38-41, July 2012.

    Solazzo, E., Bianconi, R., Pirovano, G., Moran, M. D., Vautard, R., Hogrefe, C., Appel, K. W., Matthias, V., Grossi, P., Bessagnet, B., Brandt, J., Chemel, C., Christensen, J. H., Forkel, R., Francis, X. V., Hansen, A. B., McKeen, S., Nopmongcol, U., Prank, M., Sartelet, K. N., Segers, A., Silver, J. D., Yarwood, G., Werhahn, J., Zhang, J., Rao, S. T., and Galmarini, S.: Evaluating the capability of regional-scale air quality models to capture the vertical distribution of pollutants, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 791-818, doi: 10.5194/gmd-6-791-2013.

    Galmarini, S., Kioutsioukis, I., and Solazzo, E.: E pluribus unum: ensemble air quality predictions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7153-7182, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-7153-2013.

    Solazzo, E., Riccio, A., Kioutsioukis, I., and Galmarini, S.: Pauci ex tanto numero: reduce redundancy in multi-model ensembles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8315-8333, doi: 10.5194/acp-13-8315-2013.

    C. Hogrefe, S. Roselle, R. Mathur, S.T. Rao, and S. Galmarini, Space-time analysis of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 1 air quality simulations, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 64, 388-405, 2014, doi: 10.1080/10962247.2013.811127.

    E. Solazzo, S. Galmarini, Comparing apples with apples: Using spatially distributed time series of monitoring data for model evaluation, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 112, July 2015, Pages 234-245, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.04.037.

  • AQMEII Phase 2 Publications

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    S. Galmarini, C. Hogrefe, D. Brunner, P. Makar, A. Baklanov, Preface, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 340-344, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.06.009.

    George Pouliot, Hugo A.C. Denier van der Gon, Jeroen Kuenen, Junhua Zhang, Michael D. Moran, Paul A. Makar, Analysis of the emission inventories and model-ready emission datasets of Europe and North America for phase 2 of the AQMEII project, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 345-360, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.10.061.

    J. Soares, M. Sofiev, J. Hakkarainen, Uncertainties of wild-land fires emission in AQMEII phase 2 case study, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 361-370, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.01.068.

    L. Giordano, D. Brunner, J. Flemming, C. Hogrefe, U. Im, R. Bianconi, A. Badia, A. Balzarini, R. Baró, C. Chemel, G. Curci, R. Forkel, P. Jiménez-Guerrero, M. Hirtl, A. Hodzic, L. Honzak, O. Jorba, C. Knote, J.J.P. Kuenen, P.A. Makar, A. Manders-Groot, L. Neal, J.L. Pérez, G. Pirovano, G. Pouliot, R. San José, N. Savage, W. Schröder, R.S. Sokhi, D. Syrakov, A. Torian, P. Tuccella, J. Werhahn, R. Wolke, K. Yahya, R. Žabkar, Y. Zhang, S. Galmarini, Assessment of the MACC reanalysis and its influence as chemical boundary conditions for regional air quality modeling in AQMEII-2, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 371-388, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.02.034.

    Till E. Stoeckenius, Christian Hogrefe, Justin Zagunis, Timothy M. Sturtz, Benjamin Wells, Tanarit Sakulyanontvittaya, A comparison between 2010 and 2006 air quality and meteorological conditions, and emissions and boundary conditions used in simulations of the AQMEII-2 North American domain, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 389-403, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.02.043.

    Ulas Im, Roberto Bianconi, Efisio Solazzo, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Alba Badia, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bellasio, Dominik Brunner, Charles Chemel, Gabriele Curci, Johannes Flemming, Renate Forkel, Lea Giordano, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Marcus Hirtl, Alma Hodzic, Luka Honzak, Oriol Jorba, Christoph Knote, Jeroen J.P. Kuenen, Paul A. Makar, Astrid Manders-Groot, Lucy Neal, Juan L. Pérez, Guido Pirovano, George Pouliot, Roberto San Jose, Nicholas Savage, Wolfram Schroder, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Dimiter Syrakov, Alfreida Torian, Paolo Tuccella, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Khairunnisa Yahya, Rahela Zabkar, Yang Zhang, Junhua Zhang, Christian Hogrefe, Stefano Galmarini, Evaluation of operational on-line-coupled regional air quality models over Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII phase 2. Part I: Ozone, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 404-420, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.042.

    Ulas Im, Roberto Bianconi, Efisio Solazzo, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Alba Badia, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bellasio, Dominik Brunner, Charles Chemel, Gabriele Curci, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Johannes Flemming, Renate Forkel, Lea Giordano, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Marcus Hirtl, Alma Hodzic, Luka Honzak, Oriol Jorba, Christoph Knote, Paul A. Makar, Astrid Manders-Groot, Lucy Neal, Juan L. Pérez, Guido Pirovano, George Pouliot, Roberto San Jose, Nicholas Savage, Wolfram Schroder, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Dimiter Syrakov, Alfreida Torian, Paolo Tuccella, Kai Wang, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Rahela Zabkar, Yang Zhang, Junhua Zhang, Christian Hogrefe, Stefano Galmarini, Evaluation of operational online-coupled regional air quality models over Europe and North America in the context of AQMEII phase 2. Part II: Particulate matter, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 421-441, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.072.

    P.A. Makar, W. Gong, J. Milbrandt, C. Hogrefe, Y. Zhang, G. Curci, R. Žabkar, U. Im, A. Balzarini, R. Baró, R. Bianconi, P. Cheung, R. Forkel, S. Gravel, M. Hirtl, L. Honzak, A. Hou, P. Jiménez-Guerrero, M. Langer, M.D. Moran, B. Pabla, J.L. Pérez, G. Pirovano, R. San José, P. Tuccella, J. Werhahn, J. Zhang, S. Galmarini, Feedbacks between air pollution and weather, Part 1: Effects on weather, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 442-469, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.12.003.

    Dominik Brunner, Nicholas Savage, Oriol Jorba, Brian Eder, Lea Giordano, Alba Badia, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bianconi, Charles Chemel, Gabriele Curci, Renate Forkel, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Marcus Hirtl, Alma Hodzic, Luka Honzak, Ulas Im, Christoph Knote, Paul Makar, Astrid Manders-Groot, Erik van Meijgaard, Lucy Neal, Juan L. Pérez, Guido Pirovano, Roberto San Jose, Wolfram Schröder, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Dimiter Syrakov, Alfreida Torian, Paolo Tuccella, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Khairunnisa Yahya, Rahela Zabkar, Yang Zhang, Christian Hogrefe, Stefano Galmarini, Comparative analysis of meteorological performance of coupled chemistry-meteorology models in the context of AQMEII phase 2, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 470-498, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.12.032.

    P.A. Makar, W. Gong, C. Hogrefe, Y. Zhang, G. Curci, R. Žabkar, J. Milbrandt, U. Im, A. Balzarini, R. Baró, R. Bianconi, P. Cheung, R. Forkel, S. Gravel, M. Hirtl, L. Honzak, A. Hou, P. Jiménez-Guerrero, M. Langer, M.D. Moran, B. Pabla, J.L. Pérez, G. Pirovano, R. San José, P. Tuccella, J. Werhahn, J. Zhang, S. Galmarini, Feedbacks between air pollution and weather, part 2: Effects on chemistry, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 499-526, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.10.021.

    Xin Kong, Renate Forkel, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Peter Suppan, Alexander Baklanov, Michael Gauss, Dominik Brunner, Rocìo Barò, Alessandra Balzarini, Charles Chemel, Gabriele Curci, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Marcus Hirtl, Luka Honzak, Ulas Im, Juan L. Pérez, Guido Pirovano, Roberto San Jose, K. Heinke Schlünzen, George Tsegas, Paolo Tuccella, Johannes Werhahn, Rahela Žabkar, Stefano Galmarini, Analysis of meteorology–chemistry interactions during air pollution episodes using online coupled models within AQMEII phase-2, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 527-540, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.020.

    G. Curci, C. Hogrefe, R. Bianconi, U. Im, A. Balzarini, R. Baró, D. Brunner, R. Forkel, L. Giordano, M. Hirtl, L. Honzak, P. Jiménez-Guerrero, C. Knote, M. Langer, P.A. Makar, G. Pirovano, J.L. Pérez, R. San José, D. Syrakov, P. Tuccella, J. Werhahn, R. Wolke, R. Žabkar, J. Zhang, S. Galmarini, Uncertainties of simulated aerosol optical properties induced by assumptions on aerosol physical and chemical properties: An AQMEII-2 perspective, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 541-552, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.009.

    Christoph Knote, Paolo Tuccella, Gabriele Curci, Louisa Emmons, John J. Orlando, Sasha Madronich, Rocio Baró, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Deborah Luecken, Christian Hogrefe, Renate Forkel, Johannes Werhahn, Marcus Hirtl, Juan L. Pérez, Roberto San José, Lea Giordano, Dominik Brunner, Khairunnisa Yahya, Yang Zhang, Influence of the choice of gas-phase mechanism on predictions of key gaseous pollutants during the AQMEII phase-2 intercomparison, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 553-568, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.066.

    Patrick Campbell, Yang Zhang, Khairunnisa Yahya, Kai Wang, Christian Hogrefe, George Pouliot, Christoph Knote, Alma Hodzic, Roberto San Jose, Juan L. Perez, Pedro Jimenez Guerrero, Rocio Baro, Paul Makar, A multi-model assessment for the 2006 and 2010 simulations under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) phase 2 over North America: Part I. Indicators of the sensitivity of O3 and PM2.5 formation regimes, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 569-586, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.12.026.

    Kai Wang, Khairunnisa Yahya, Yang Zhang, Christian Hogrefe, George Pouliot, Christoph Knote, Alma Hodzic, Roberto San Jose, Juan L. Perez, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Rocio Baro, Paul Makar, Ralf Bennartz, A multi-model assessment for the 2006 and 2010 simulations under the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 over North America: Part II. Evaluation of column variable predictions using satellite data, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 587-603, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.07.044.

    A. Balzarini, G. Pirovano, L. Honzak, R. Žabkar, G. Curci, R. Forkel, M. Hirtl, R. San José, P. Tuccella, G.A. Grell, WRF-Chem model sensitivity to chemical mechanisms choice in reconstructing aerosol optical properties, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 604-619, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.12.033.

    Rocio Baró, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Alessandra Balzarini, Gabriele Curci, Renate Forkel, Georg Grell, Marcus Hirtl, Luka Honzak, Matthias Langer, Juan L. Pérez, Guido Pirovano, Roberto San José, Paolo Tuccella, Johannes Werhahn, Rahela Žabkar, Sensitivity analysis of the microphysics scheme in WRF-Chem contributions to AQMEII phase 2, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 620-629, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.01.047.

    Renate Forkel, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocio Baró, Roberto Bianconi, Gabriele Curci, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Marcus Hirtl, Luka Honzak, Christof Lorenz, Ulas Im, Juan L. Pérez, Guido Pirovano, Roberto San José, Paolo Tuccella, Johannes Werhahn, Rahela Žabkar, Analysis of the WRF-Chem contributions to AQMEII phase2 with respect to aerosol radiative feedbacks on meteorology and pollutant distributions, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 630-645, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.10.056.

    R. San José, J.L. Pérez, A. Balzarini, R. Baró, G. Curci, R. Forkel, S. Galmarini, G. Grell, M. Hirtl, L. Honzak, U. Im, P. Jiménez-Guerrero, M. Langer, G. Pirovano, P. Tuccella, J. Werhahn, R. Žabkar, Sensitivity of feedback effects in CBMZ/MOSAIC chemical mechanism, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 646-656, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.04.030.

    A. Badia, O. Jorba, Gas-phase evaluation of the online NMMB/BSC-CTM model over Europe for 2010 in the framework of the AQMEII-Phase2 project, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 657-669, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.05.055.

    Chuen Meei Gan, Francis Binkowski, Jonathan Pleim, Jia Xing, David Wong, Rohit Mathur, Robert Gilliam, Assessment of the aerosol optics component of the coupled WRF–CMAQ model using CARES field campaign data and a single column model, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 670-682, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.028.

    Christian Hogrefe, George Pouliot, David Wong, Alfreida Torian, Shawn Roselle, Jonathan Pleim, Rohit Mathur, Annual application and evaluation of the online coupled WRF–CMAQ system over North America under AQMEII phase 2, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 683-694, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.12.034.

    W. Gong, P.A. Makar, J. Zhang, J. Milbrandt, S. Gravel, K.L. Hayden, A.M. Macdonald, W.R. Leaitch, Modelling aerosol–cloud–meteorology interaction: A case study with a fully coupled air quality model (GEM-MACH), Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 695-715, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.05.062.

    Kai Wang, Yang Zhang, Khairunnisa Yahya, Shiang-Yuh Wu, Georg Grell, Implementation and initial application of new chemistry-aerosol options in WRF/Chem for simulating secondary organic aerosols and aerosol indirect effects for regional air quality, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 716-732, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.12.007.

    Khairunnisa Yahya, Kai Wang, Masilin Gudoshava, Timothy Glotfelty, Yang Zhang, Application of WRF/Chem over North America under the AQMEII Phase 2: Part I. Comprehensive evaluation of 2006 simulation, Atmospheric Environment, Volume 115, August 2015, Pages 733-755, ISSN 1352-2310, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.08.063.

    Solazzo, E. and Galmarini, S.: Error apportionment for atmospheric chemistry-transport models – a new approach to model evaluation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6263-6283, doi: 10.5194/acp-16-6263-2016.

  • AQMEII Phase 3 Publications

    The following links exit the site Exit

    Galmarini, S., Koffi, B., Solazzo, E., Keating, T., Hogrefe, C., Schulz, M., Benedictow, A., Griesfeller, J. J., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Carmichael, G., Fu, J., Dentener, F., Technical note: Coordination and harmonization of the multi-scale, multi-model activities HTAP2, AQMEII3, and MICS-Asia3: simulations, emission inventories, boundary conditions, and model output formats, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 2017, 2, 1543--1555, https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/17/1543/2017/, doi:10.5194/acp-17-1543-2017

     Mathur, R., Xing, J., Gilliam, R., Sarwar, G., Hogrefe, C., Pleim, J., Pouliot, G., Roselle, S., Spero, T. L., Wong, D. C., Young, J., Extending the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to hemispheric scales: overview of process considerations and initial applications, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 2017, 20, 12449--12474, https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/17/12449/2017/, doi:10.5194/acp-17-12449-2017

    Janssens-Maenhout, G., Crippa, M., Guizzardi, D., Dentener, F., Muntean, M., Pouliot, G., Keating, T., Zhang, Q., Kurokawa, J., Wankmuller, R., Denier van der Gon, H., Kuenen, J. J. P., Klimont, Z., Frost, G., Darras, S., Koffi, B., Li, M., HTAP_v2.2: a mosaic of regional and global emission grid maps for 2008 and 2010 to study hemispheric transport of air pollution, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15, 2015,19, 11411--11432, https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/11411/2015/, doi:10.5194/acp-15-11411-2015

    Kioutsioukis, I., Im, U., Solazzo, E., Bianconi, R., Badia, A., Balzarini, A., Baro, R., Bellasio, R., Brunner, D., Chemel, C., Curci, G., van der Gon, H. D., Flemming, J., Forkel, R., Giordano, L., Jimenez-Guerrero, P., Hirtl, M., Jorba, O., Manders-Groot, A., Neal, L., Perez, J. L., Pirovano, G., San Jose, R., Savage, N., Schroder, W., Sokhi, R. S., Syrakov, D., Tuccella, P., Werhahn, J., Wolke, R., Hogrefe, C., Galmarini, S., Insights into the deterministic skill of air quality ensembles from the analysis of AQMEII data, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16, 2016, 24, 15629--15652, https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/16/15629/2016/, doi:10.5194/acp-16-15629-2016

    Solazzo, E., Bianconi, R., Hogrefe, C., Curci, G., Tuccella, P., Alyuz, U., Balzarini, A., Baro, R., Bellasio, R., Bieser, J., Brandt, J., Christensen, J. H., Colette, A., Francis, X., Fraser, A., Vivanco, M. G., Jimenez-Guerrero, P., Im, U., Manders, A., Nopmongcol, U., Kitwiroon, N., Pirovano, G., Pozzoli, L., Prank, M., Sokhi, R. S., Unal, A., Yarwood, G., Galmarini, S., Evaluation and error apportionment of an ensemble of atmospheric chemistry transport modeling systems: multivariable temporal and spatial breakdown, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 2017, 4, 3001--3054, https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/17/3001/2017/, doi:10.5194/acp-17-3001-2017

    Solazzo, E., Hogrefe, C., Colette, A., Garcia-Vivanco, M., Galmarini, S., Advanced error diagnostics of the CMAQ and Chimere modelling systems within the AQMEII3 model evaluation framework, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 2017, 17, 10435--10465, https://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/17/10435/2017/, doi:10.5194/acp-17-10435-2017

    Hogrefe, C., Liu, P., Pouliot, G., Mathur, R., Roselle, S., Flemming, J., Lin, M., and Park, R. J.: Impacts of different characterizations of large-scale background on simulated regional-scale ozone over the continental United States, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3839-3864, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3839-2018, 2018

    Im, U., Brandt, J., Geels, C., Hansen, K. M., Christensen, J. H., Andersen, M. S., Solazzo, E., Kioutsioukis, I., Alyuz, U., Balzarini, A., Baro, R., Bellasio, R., Bianconi, R., Bieser, J., Colette, A., Curci, G., Farrow, A., Flemming, J., Fraser, A., Jimenez-Guerrero, P., Kitwiroon, N., Liang, C.-K., Nopmongcol, U., Pirovano, G., Pozzoli, L., Prank, M., Rose, R., Sokhi, R., Tuccella, P., Unal, A., Vivanco, M. G., West, J., Yarwood, G., Hogrefe, C., and Galmarini, S.: Assessment and economic valuation of air pollution impacts on human health over Europe and the United States as calculated by a multi-model ensemble in the framework of AQMEII3, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5967-5989, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-5967-2018, 2018

    Galmarini, S., Kioutsioukis, I., Solazzo, E., Alyuz, U., Balzarini, A., Bellasio, R., Benedictow, A. M. K., Bianconi, R., Bieser, J., Brandt, J., Christensen, J. H., Colette, A., Curci, G., Davila, Y., Dong, X., Flemming, J., Francis, X., Fraser, A., Fu, J., Henze, D. K., Hogrefe, C., Im, U., Garcia Vivanco, M., Jiménez-Guerrero, P., Jonson, J. E., Kitwiroon, N., Manders, A., Mathur, R., Palacios-Peña, L., Pirovano, G., Pozzoli, L., Prank, M., Schultz, M., Sokhi, R. S., Sudo, K., Tuccella, P., Takemura, T., Sekiya, T., and Unal, A.: Two-scale multi-model ensemble: is a hybrid ensemble of opportunity telling us more?, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8727-8744, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-8727-2018, 2018

    Im, U., Christensen, J. H., Geels, C., Hansen, K. M., Brandt, J., Solazzo, E., Alyuz, U., Balzarini, A., Baro, R., Bellasio, R., Bianconi, R., Bieser, J., Colette, A., Curci, G., Farrow, A., Flemming, J., Fraser, A., Jimenez-Guerrero, P., Kitwiroon, N., Liu, P., Nopmongcol, U., Palacios-Peña, L., Pirovano, G., Pozzoli, L., Prank, M., Rose, R., Sokhi, R., Tuccella, P., Unal, A., Vivanco, M. G., Yarwood, G., Hogrefe, C., and Galmarini, S.: Influence of anthropogenic emissions and boundary conditions on multi-model simulations of major air pollutants over Europe and North America in the framework of AQMEII3, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8929-8952, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-8929-2018, 2018

    Vivanco, M. G., Theobald, M. R., García-Gómez, H., Garrido, J. L., Prank, M., Aas, W., Adani, M., Alyuz, U., Andersson, C., Bellasio, R., Bessagnet, B., Bianconi, R., Bieser, J., Brandt, J., Briganti, G., Cappelletti, A., Curci, G., Christensen, J. H., Colette, A., Couvidat, F., Cuvelier, C., D'Isidoro, M., Flemming, J., Fraser, A., Geels, C., Hansen, K. M., Hogrefe, C., Im, U., Jorba, O., Kitwiroon, N., Manders, A., Mircea, M., Otero, N., Pay, M.-T., Pozzoli, L., Solazzo, E., Tsyro, S., Unal, A., Wind, P., and Galmarini, S.: Modeled deposition of nitrogen and sulfur in Europe estimated by 14 air quality model systems: evaluation, effects of changes in emissions and implications for habitat protection, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10199-10218, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-10199-2018, 2018

    Astitha, M., Kioutsioukis, I., Fisseha, G. A., Bianconi, R., Bieser, J., Christensen, J. H., Cooper, O. R., Galmarini, S., Hogrefe, C., Im, U., Johnson, B., Liu, P., Nopmongcol, U., Petropavlovskikh, I., Solazzo, E., Tarasick, D. W., and Yarwood, G.: Seasonal ozone vertical profiles over North America using the AQMEII3 group of air quality models: model inter-comparison and stratospheric intrusions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13925-13945, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-13925-2018, 2018

    Liu, P., Hogrefe, C., Im, U., Christensen, J. H., Bieser, J., Nopmongcol, U., Yarwood, G., Mathur, R., Roselle, S., and Spero, T.: Attributing differences in the fate of lateral boundary ozone in AQMEII3 models to physical process representations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17157-17175, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-17157-2018, 2018

    Curci, G., Alyuz, U., Barò, R., Bianconi, R., Bieser, J., Christensen, J. H., Colette, A., Farrow, A., Francis, X., Jiménez-Guerrero, P., Im, U., Liu, P., Manders, A., Palacios-Peña, L., Prank, M., Pozzoli, L., Sokhi, R., Solazzo, E., Tuccella, P., Unal, A., Vivanco, M. G., Hogrefe, C., and Galmarini, S.: Modelling black carbon absorption of solar radiation: combining external and internal mixing assumptions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 181-204, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-181-2019, 2019