An official website of the United States government.

We've made some changes to If the information you are looking for is not here, you may be able to find it on the EPA Web Archive or the January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot.


Watering Tips

Watering tips banner

Tired of dragging out the hose every day or letting your sprinkler soak the sidewalk? The following tips can help you water less and water smarter. 

Sprinkler Spruce-Up

When it comes to a home's irrigation system, a little maintenance goes a long way. Homes with clock timer controlled irrigation systems use about 50 percent more water outdoors than homes without irrigation systems. Your system can waste even more if it’s programmed incorrectly, a sprinkler head is pointed in the wrong direction, or you have a leak. Before you ramp up your watering efforts, spruce up your irrigation system by remembering four simple steps: inspect, connect, direct, and select.

Check out our video with Flo and follow the simple tips listed below for sprucing up your sprinkler system:

  • Inspect. Check your system for clogged, broken or missing sprinkler heads. Better yet, go with a pro—find an irrigation professional certified by a WaterSense labeled program to do the work for you.

  • Connect. Examine points where the sprinkler heads connect to pipes or hoses. If water pools in your landscape or you have large wet areas, you could have a leak in your system. A leak about as small as the tip of a ballpoint pen (or 1/32nd of an inch) can waste about 6,300 gallons of water per month!

  • Direct. Make sure to direct your sprinklers so that they apply water only to the landscape—not the driveway, house, or sidewalk.

  • Select. An improperly scheduled irrigation controller can waste water and money. Update your system’s watering schedule to align with the seasons, or select a WaterSense labeled weather based irrigation controller to take the guesswork out of scheduling.

You can save even more water outdoors by incorporating water-smart landscaping principles into your landscape design. Looking for more ways to save? Check out other outdoor water-saving technologies.

Timing Is Everything

Summer infographic for timingClick to view in full.No matter what kind of yard or landscape you have, it's important to know exactly how much water your plants need before you turn on the sprinkler. Smart watering practices reduce runoff and may decrease the need for pesticides and fertilizers. 

Contact your local water utility to find out exactly how much and when you should be watering , and keep the following questions in mind when you water can so that you can maintain a beautiful and healthy yard without wasting water or money.


Avoid watering in the middle of the day when the hot sun will evaporate much of the water before it can get to thirsty plants.

How often?

The answer depends on several factors, including where you live, recent weather conditions, and the type of plants in your landscape. A rule of thumb for many areas of the country is that lawns only need up to one inch of water a week, including rainfall. Shrubs, trees, and other perennials generally will need even less because of their deeper root structure. Check with your area's Cooperative Extension Service Exit or local water utility for expert advice on watering needs in your area.

Give this a try! Place a few empty tuna cans around your lawn while you're watering and measure how long it takes your sprinkler to fill them with a half inch of water. Then, try watering that amount of time twice a week, gauge how your landscape responds, and adjust based on weather conditions. Or simplify by replacing your standard clock timer controller with a WaterSense labeled irrigation controller.

How long?

If water begins to pool, turn off your sprinkler to prevent overwatering and runoff. Watering plants or grass too frequently can drown plants or result in shallow roots. Overwatering can lead to a host of other problems including weed growth, disease, fungus, and stormwater runoff that pollutes local waterways with fertilizers and pesticides. Remember, most of your plants will need less water than your turfgrass.

What else? 

When the rain does come, saving water from storms is a great way to supplement your efficiency measures. Rain barrels or cisterns can be used to harvest rain water for irrigation and other outdoor water uses. Commercial rooftop collection systems are available, but simply diverting your downspout into a covered barrel is an easy, low-cost approach. Some states might have laws that prohibit collection of rainwater, so be sure to check with your state's water resource agency before implementing a rainwater collection system.

Household wastewater—or “greywater”—from bathroom sinks, showers, bathtubs, and clothes washers can also be reused for landscape irrigation. Greywater reuse systems divert used water to a storage tank for later outdoor watering use. State and local greywater laws and policies vary, so you should investigate to determine if restrictions apply in your area.

See EPA's Region 9 Web page on Water Recycling and Reuse for more information on the uses and benefits of recycled water.

Manage Your Irrigation System

Man working irrigation controllerIf your home is one of the more than 13.5 million with an in-ground irrigation system, try some of these simple strategies to reduce your water waste and protect the environment. Having a beautiful landscape doesn’t have to mean using a lot of water.

  • Look for the label. WaterSense labels irrigation controllers and spray sprinkler bodies. WaterSense labeled irrigation controllers are a type of "smart" irrigation control technology that uses local weather data to tell the system when to turn on and how much to water. WaterSense labeled spray sprinkler bodies, which feature integral pressure regulation, help decrease outdoor water waste from irrigation systems where the water pressure is higher than optimal levels.  Upgrading your system with WaterSense labeled products can help you save water and money. 

  • Adjust your irrigation system often. Get to know the settings on your irrigation controller and, if you haven't upgraded to a weather-based controller, adjust its watering schedule regularly according to seasonal weather conditions. A good rule of thumb: when you adjust your thermostat due to seasonal temperature changes, adjust your irrigation controller watering schedule as well. For more tips on adjusting your irrigation controller schedule, read our Irrigation Controller Brochure (4 pp, 1,334 K, About PDF).

  • Set sprinklers to keep the water on the landscape and off the pavement. Lots of water is wasted by poorly designed and neglected sprinkler systems that spray sidewalks, driveways, and the street. Monitoring and making simple adjustments to the sprinklers saves water and reduces runoff from the landscape, helping to keep local water bodies clean.

  • Play "zone" defense. Schedule each individual zone in your irrigation system to account for the type of sprinkler, sun or shade exposure, and type of plants and soil in the specific area. The same watering schedule rarely applies to all zones in the system.

  • Check for WaterSense! A certified irrigation professional can design, install, maintain, or audit your system to ensure you're using the proper amount of water to support a healthy landscape. Ask if your irrigation contractor is certified by a WaterSense labeled program.

  • Inspect your irrigation system monthly. Check for leaks, broken or clogged heads, and other problems, or engage a certified irrigation professional to regularly check your system. Clean microirrigation filters as needed and correct obstructions in sprinkler heads that prevent them from distributing water evenly.

  • Use smart(er) technologies. Consider installing other water-saving technologies such as soil moisture-based control technologies and microirrigation to get the most out of your irrigation system.

  • Install a microirrigation system for gardens, trees, and shrubs. Microirrigation applies water slowly and directly to the plants’ roots to minimize evaporation, runoff, and loss to wind. WaterSense has two different guides available to help irrigation professionals and homeowners understand the benefits of microirrigation and provide tips on efficient irrigation system design, installation, and maintenance.

Smarter Technology

Using water-efficient technologies can make a big difference in keeping your residential or light commercial irrigation system running efficiently without a lot of effort on your part. Consult an irrigation professional certified by a WaterSense labeled program to find out which options are best for updating your irrigation system. 

WaterSense Labeled Irrigation Controllers

WaterSense labeled weather-based irrigation controllers are a type of "smart" irrigation control technology that uses local weather data to determine when and how much to water. WaterSense labeled irrigation controllers can save you water, time, and money when compared to standard models.

WaterSense Labeled Spray Sprinkler Bodies

WaterSense labeled spray sprinkler bodies, which feature integral pressure regulation, can help decrease the outdoor water waste associated with irrigation systems that receive water under higher pressure.


Microirrigation can reduce the likelihood of overwatering a landscape by delivering water directly to where it is needed most, the root zone of plants, preventing runoff and reducing evaporation. WaterSense developed two guides to help irrigation professionals and homeowners understand the benefits of microirrigation. The guides also provide design, installation, and maintenance tips, which are the keys to an efficient irrigation system.

Soil Moisture Sensors

Soil moisture-based control technologies water plants based on their needs by measuring the amount of moisture in the soil and tailoring the irrigation schedule accordingly. WaterSense has issued a Notice of Intent to label soil moisture–based control technologies.

Rainfall Shutoff Devices

Rainfall shutoff devices turn off your system in rainy weather and help compensate for natural rainfall. This inexpensive device can be retrofitted to almost any system.

Rain Sensors

Rain sensors can help decrease water wasted in the landscape by turning off the irrigation system when it is raining.