Lead at Superfund Sites: Software and Users' Manuals
The source code for the IEUBK model is available on request via the website. It is the responsibility of the user to verify that the latest version of the software is being used.
Please refer to the Guidance page for technical reports, guidance documents and short sheets related to the use of the IEUBK model and the ALM.
On this page:
Download the IEUBK
- Overview of Changes from IEUBKwin version 1.1 to IEUBK version 2
- Windows® version 2
- User's Guide
- Updates to the Default Values for IEUBK version 2
- Guidance Manual
- Technical Support Document
- System Requirements and Design document
Download the ALM
- Recommendations document and spreadsheets
- Update of the Adult Lead Methodology’s Default Baseline Blood Lead Concentration and Geometric Standard Deviation Parameter
- ALM Review Report
Overview of Changes From IEUBKwin version 1.1 build 11 to IEUBKwin version 2 (May 2021)
The following changes have been made in this version of the IEUBKwin v2:
- Updated model input variables for dietary lead exposure using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and statistical methodology developed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI).
- Updated model input variables for drinking water consumption using data from the 1994-1996 and 1998 CSFII database and drinking water concentration using data from the 1998-2005 National Compliance Monitoring Information Collection Request.
- Updated baseline maternal blood lead concentration (PbB) using data from NHANES.
- Replaced the inhalation rates with rates that were estimated using a database of doubly-labeled water energy expenditure developed by the institute of Medicine (IOM).
- Updated the soil/dust ingestion rates based on an analysis of soil, indoor dust and blood lead concentration data from the Bunker Hill Superfund Site.
- Changed calculations that are not apparent to user: fixed calculation of GM to sum & divide by number of iterations; calculating just 6 months for 6 to 12 months in the yearly averages.
- Changed the ‘Find’ function and ‘Run’ to reflect P5 target and recommended age range (12-72 months) by default.
- Changed the graphical user interface (GUI) to simplify use, improve appearance and update all links to the TRW homepage.
- Changed the output files to report ages consistently in months.
- Windows 10 environments officially supported.
- Updated the help file to correspond to the updated versions of the IEUBK documentation.
Overview of Changes from IEUBKwin version 1.1 build 11 to IEUBKwin version 2 (PDF)(6 pp, 231 K): This document provides complete details on the changes above.
Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children, Windows® version (IEUBKwin v2)
(May 2021) 32/64-bit version
This is the latest version of the IEUBK model (IEUBKwin v2).
- Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children, Windows Version (IEUBK v2) (ZIP) (zip)
To extract the model, save the archive file to a directory of your choice, then open the archive and run the IEUBK.msi file to install. To run the model, click on the executable model file IEUBKwin2.exe
To request the previous version of the IEUBK model, please contact the TRW hotline at email@example.com or call 1-866-282-8622.
User's Guide for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (IEUBK) Windows® version 2 (Updated May 2021)
This instructional guide for IEUBKwin users provides the basics needed for accurate application and interpretation of the model, including how to install and run it, model inputs and outputs, model analysis, interpretation of results, minimum requirements for risk assessment application, and example scenarios. Users can refer to the IEUBK Model Guidance Manual for supplemental information concerning the parameters and correct application of IEUBKwin.
- User's Guide for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (IEUBK) version 2 (PDF) (70 pp, 1 MB)
Updates to the Default Values for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model version 2
The following six key default parameters were peer reviewed and five were revised for IEUBK version 2 based on the most recent available data. Subsequently, EPA’s Office of Research and Development led an evaluation of the model with the revised default exposure parameters.
- Evaluation of IEUBK version 2.0 model performance. Memorandum from John Vandenberg to Brigid Lowery, 23 September 2020 (PDF) (3 pp, 620 K)
- ORD IEUBK Evaluation Report: Advancing Pb Exposure and Biokinetic Modeling for U.S. EPA Regulatory Decisions and Site Assessments Using Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site Data
- Estimation of Age-Specific Soil and Dust Ingestion Rates for U.S. Children: Update to the Default Value for the IEUBK (PDF) (17 pp, 477 K)
- Estimation of Daily Water Consumption: Update to the Default Value for the IEUBK (PDF) (13 pp, 362 K)
- Estimation of Lead Exposure from Water Sources: Update to the Default Value for the IEUBK (PDF) (15 pp, 448 K)
- Estimation of Inhalation Rates for U.S. Children: Update to the Default Value for the IEUBK (PDF) (16 pp, 564 K)
- Estimation of Dietary Lead Exposure: Update to the Default Value for the IEUBK (PDF) (20 pp, 756 K)
- Estimation of Lead Bioavailability in Soil and Dust: Evaluation of the Default Value for the IEUBK (PDF) (22 pp, 699 K)
1994 Guidance Manual for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children
This document describes key features of the conceptual underpinnings of the IEUBK model, its evolution and development, its capabilities and its limitations. It also provides guidance on the use of the model as a risk assessment tool.
- Introductory Materials (PDF) (title page, TOC, glossary of terms) (268 pp, 164 K)
- Chapter 1 (PDF)(29 pp, 190 K)
- Chapter 2 (PDF)(50 pp, 947 K)
- Chapter 3 (PDF)(13 pp, 238 K)
- Chapter 4 (PDF)(67 pp, 422 K)
- Chapter 5 (PDF)(32 pp, 154 K)
- Chapter 6 (PDF)(11 pp, 63 K)
- Appendix A (PDF)(16 pp, 176 K)
- Appendix B (PDF)(5 pp, 30K)
Technical Support Document for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (v0.99d)
[NTIS #PB94-963505, EPA 9285.7-22] (December 1994)
This document provides a detailed description of the equations and parameters used in the IEUBK model. It is a companion to the IEUBK Model Guidance Manual.
- Technical Support Document for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (v0.99d) (PDF)(114 pp, 596 K)
System Requirements and Design for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (IEUBK) version 2
(Updated May 2021)
This document is an all-inclusive synopsis of the requirements for the development of the IEUBK model. It documents the design and implementation of the converted program, and serves as reference that can be used in the future for model enhancement or modification. The requirements portion of this document describes the parameters and equations used in this version of the IEUBK model and documents the changes made from IEUBK v1.1 to Version 2.
- System Requirements and Design for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (IEUBK) version 2 (PDF)(126 pp, 2.31 MB)
Recommendations of the Technical Review Workgroup for Lead for an Approach to Assessing Risks Associated with Adult Exposures to Lead in Soil
[EPA-540-R-03-001, OSWER Dir #9285.7-54] December 1996 (January 2003) -- The Adult Lead Methodology (ALM)
Note: This January 2003 document does not incorporate the NHANES III survey recommendations of the TRW. Baseline blood lead concentration (PbB) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) values for the ALM should be input into the ALM based on the information presented in the NHANES report, available on the Guidance page.
This document describes a methodology for assessing risks associated with non-residential adult exposures to lead in soil. The methodology focuses on estimating fetal blood lead concentrations in women exposed to lead-contaminated soils. This approach also provides tools for evaluating risks of elevated blood lead concentrations among exposed adults. Based on the TRW's analysis of the data collected in the completed NHANES III survey (1999-2004), updated ranges for the baseline adult blood lead concentration (PbB) and GSDi adult parameters in the ALM have been included in the spreadsheets. However, recent scientific evidence has demonstrated adverse health effects at blood lead concentrations below 10 µg/dL down to 5 µg/dL, and possibly below. OSRTI is developing a new soil lead policy to address this new information. Until that soil lead policy is finalized, regional risk assessors and managers should consult with the TRW’s Lead Committee before applying these updated values for risk assessment. The spreadsheet below provides both the previous (NHANES III Phases 1 and 2) analysis and updates.
Adult Lead Methodology (ALM) (PDF)(55 pp, 702 K)
Update of the Adult Lead Methodology’s Default Baseline Blood Lead Concentration and Geometric Standard Deviation Parameter
[OLEM Directive 9285.6-56] May 2017 -- Update to the ALM
The recommendations in this document provide the technical basis for updating the default baseline blood-lead concentration and default geometric standard deviation input parameters of the Adult Lead Methodology and maternal blood-lead concentration in the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model.
- Adult Lead Methodology FAQ entry: Implementing the NHANES Update in the ALM
Review of Adult Lead Models: Evaluation of Models for Assessing Human Health Risks Associated with Lead Exposures at Non-Residential Areas of Superfund and Other Hazardous Waste Sites
[OSWER Dir #9285.7-46] August 2001 -- The ALM Review Report
This report reviews the ALM as well as other modeling approaches and their potential applicability to assessing non-residential lead exposures and risks.
Review of Adult Lead Models: Evaluation of Models for Assessing Human Health Risks Associated with Lead Exposures at Non-Residential Areas of Superfund and Other Hazardous Waste Sites (PDF) (85 pp, 1.9 MB)
Link to the Technical Review Workgroup for Metals and Asbestos (TRW) Publication on Assessing Non-Residential Lead Risks at Hazardous Waste Sites. Published in Journal of Human and Ecological Risk Assessment