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Superfund

Lead at Superfund Sites: Related Links

The following references provide additional information related to lead and lead cleanup

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  • Validation Strategy for The Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children (PDF) (30 pp, 229 K)
    EPA 9285.7-21, December 1994
    This document describes the considerations and methods for characterizing the confidence to be placed in the output from the IEUBK, version 0.99d.

  • Federal Register Notice: Identification of Dangerous Levels of Lead; Final Rule; 40 CFR Part 745 (PDF) (36 pp, 496 K)
    Provides new standards for identifying levels at which lead in paint, dust, or soil constitute a lead-based paint hazard.

  • Publications on Lead Modeling and the IEUBK: Model Validation Concepts and Their Application to Lead Models
    Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP)publications on IEUBK model validation.

  • Chaney, R.L. et al. 1984. The potential for heavy metal exposure from urban gardens and soils, pp. 37-84. In: J.R. Preer ed. Proceedings of the symposium on heavy metals in urban gardens. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of the District of Columbia, Washington.

  • Cohen, J., Marcus, A. and R. Elias. 1990. Estimating Childhood Multi-Media Lead Exposure: Expanded Exposure/Uptake/Biokinetic Model. Presented at 83rd Annual Meeting, Air Water Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA. June 24-29, 1990.

  • Davis, S., Waller, P., Buschbom, M.A., et al. 1990. Quantitative estimates of soil ingestion in normal children between the ages of 2 and 7 years: Population-based estimates using aluminum, silicon, and titanium as soil tracer elements. Arch. Environ. Health 45(2), 112-122.

  • Harley, N.H., T.H. Kneip. 1985. An Integrated Metabolic Model for Lead in Humans of All Ages. Final report to USEPA, Contract B44899, New York University Department of Environmental Medicine.

  • Marcus, A.H. and J. Cohen. 1988. Modeling the blood lead-Soil lead relathionship. In Environmental Geochemistry and Health Monograph Series 4. Lead in Soiil: Issues and Guidelines (B.E. Davies and B.G. Wilson, Eds.), pp. 161-174. Science Reviews Limited, Northwood, England.

  • Marcus, A.H. 1985. Multicompartment kinetic model for lead. I. Bone diffusion models for long-term retention. Environ. Res. 36, 441-458.

  • Marcus, A.H. 1985. Multicompartment kinetic model for lead. II. Linear kinetics and variable absorption in humans without excessive lead exposure. Environ. Res. 36, 459-472.

  • Marcus, A.H. 1985. Multicompartment kinetic model for lead. III. Lead in blood plasma and erythrocytes. Environ. Res. 36, 473-489.

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