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Managing and Transforming Waste Streams – A Tool for Communities

Examples and Resources for Transforming Waste Streams in Communities (#51-100)

The resources listed on this page are referenced by the measures in the Tool. To search for examples by city or county name, use your web-browser ‘find on page’ command (Control+f).
See also: Examples and Resources for Measures 1-50 »

Most of the links on this page exit the siteExit

51. Food Waste Outreach & Prevention (vendors)
Sector: ICI

Conduct outreach to grocery stores, restaurants, school cafeterias and other food service vendors on opportunities and practices to prevent food waste, as well as to reduce disposable food ware and packaging.

Examples

  • County of San Diego, CA
    In 2015, the County of San Diego's Department of Public Works, Solid Waste Planning and Recycling Section partnered with the Department of Environmental Health and the Health and Human Services Agency to produce a Food Donation Guide for Businesses (PDF) and a Safe Food Handling for Donation Checklist (PDF) to distribute to local businesses. The guides are designed to promote safe food handling, source reduction, and food donation
  • Boulder County,CO
    The County and other local agencies fund a local nonprofit organization to coordinate a recycling and environmental education program for public schools, including a Green Star Schools Program; this program provides training to cafeteria staff and students on how to reduce food waste, compost food scraps, and use reuseable service ware

Resources

52. Food Waste Outreach & Prevention (consumers)
Sector: Residential

Conduct outreach on reducing wasted food at home.

Examples

  • Tompkins County, NY
    In 2015, the County received a state grant to develop a program for residential food waste prevention which included a community film screening, social media campaign, school presentations, and a food waste prevention challenge
  • King County, WA
    The County initiated a pilot to engage students at a local school and their families, encouraging families to take a food waste challenge. In tracking food waste reduction outcomes, the County found that, on average, families that participated all 5 weeks of the challenge reduced their food waste by 28%
    Pilot Project: Fall City Elementary School (PDF) (10 pp, 461K)
  • Washington County, OR
    In 2015, the County, in partnership with Metro regional agencies, piloted a residential food waste outreach campaign - Eat Smart, Waste Less Challenge. The campaign involved conducting outreach through presentations and events using several educational tools, including a hands-on fruit and vegetable storage guide magnet display
    Eat Smart, Waste Less Challenge 2015 Pilot Campaign Evaluation (PDF)

Resources

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53. Food Waste Collection Program with Private Haulers
Sector: ICI

Initiate a sign-up program for businesses and institutions that discard food waste to obtain compost bins and collection service.

Examples

  • Eugene, OR
    The City's Love Food Not Waste program, which began in November 2011, enables businesses to sign up for food waste collection service from private haulers at rates 20% below commercial garbage rates, as established by ordinance and administrative rule; the City also offers free on-site training to business employees. The program has grown to 200 participants and recovers over 1,000 tons of food waste annually

Resources

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54. Paper Reduction at Offices
Sector: ICI

Conduct outreach on "Paperless Office" strategies.

Examples

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55. Best Practices Training
Sector: ICI

Conduct training, e.g., site visits, walk-through audits or assessments, and distribution of displays and signs to increase rates of recycling and/or composting at facilities.

Examples

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56. Extended Producer Responsibility (legislation)
Sector: ICI

Advocate for Producer Responsibility legislation and programs, e.g., through participating in Product Stewardship Councils and/or adopting local resolutions.

Examples

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57. Extended Producer Responsibility (compliance)
Sector: ICI

Promote producer compliance in managing the reuse, recycling and/or safe disposal of products covered by EPR legislation.

Examples

  • Del Norte County, CA
    The County negotiated with Paint Care, a non-profit organization representing paint manufacturers to operate stewardship programs in states with paint stewardship laws, to obtain funding to provide collection opportunities for recovered paint in the County
    Recycle with Paint Care

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58. Materials Exchange
Sector: ICI

Develop or facilitate an online network to foster business-to-business connections to match unwanted material byproducts or commodities to opportunities for reuse or recycling as feedstock.

Examples

  • New York City, NY
    Through DonateNYC, the City provides information to residents and businesses to easily donate or find used goods, e.g., computers, containers, furniture, office supplies, textiles, and surplus food
  • Austin, TX
    The City supports Austin Materials Marketplace, an online business-to-business network and program to facilitate trades of reusable items
  • San Diego, CA
    Supported by a collaborative public-private partnership, the San Diego Materials Marketplace matches businesses or organizations with industrial by-product materials or hard-to-recycle waste with the raw material feedstock needs of other organizations
  • Los Angeles County, CA
    LACoMAX is a free, online service provided by the County that facilitates exchange of construction materials, electronics, durable goods, and other items

Resources

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59. Retail Reuse Promotions
Sector: ICI

Encourage retail store "bargain basements" for sale of used clothes and other goods at discounted prices.

Examples

  • Oceanside, CA
    In May 2016, the City, in partnership with Goodwill San Diego County and Waste Management, launched CurbUp, a program to re-route bulky items collected from residents first to a Goodwill location for salvage of reusable items prior to landfill disposal; a pilot effort preceding the program found that in one week, Goodwill salvaged 60%-70% of bulky items collected. The City's franchise agreement lends support to this program by requiring its hauler to manage these materials to the highest and best use possible
  • Mountain Village, CO
    The Town's Zero Waste Action Plan (PDF) recommends working with major clothing retailers to establish bargain basements for sale of premium used clothes supplied by local thrift stores (see pg. 17)
  • Austin, TX
    Goodwill Austin's Blue Hanger is the most profitable of all Austin Goodwill operations, receiving products not sold at Goodwill stores in the area and selling at a discounted per pound rate
    The Blue Hangar, Austin Chronicle

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60. Reuse Business Network
Sector: ICI

Develop a network of local businesses to repair, refurbish, market and sell used products.

Examples

  • San Diego, CA
    The County of San Diego, City of San Diego and City of Chula Vista are actively involved in a local collaborative, the San Diego Reuse and Repair Network; the network supports local reuse and repair businesses, for example, by inviting reuse and repair vendors to attend community workshops or fairs to engage the public
  • Austin, TX
    The City supports local businesses that share or repair reusable items or sell products made with recycled or upcycled materials through its "Shop Zero Waste" website and store directory

Resources

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61. Rental Business Promotions
Sector: ICI

Help promote services that provide short term rentals of reusable goods such as tools, sports equipment, party equipment (tables, chairs, serving utensils), as well as sharing websites.

Examples

  • Lane County, OR
    The County promotes rental of reusable dishware for events
    Event Recycling Bins and Durable Dishware Program
  • Boulder, CO
    The Center for ReSource Conservation, a non-profit organization, runs a ReSource Tool Library that rents tools through a membership-based program to individuals, businesses, and community organizations for an annual fee

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62. Recognition and Certification Programs (local)
Sector: ICI

To increase the level of participation in recycling and composting programs, provide recognition for successes through a Green Business program or a Zero Waste Businesses or Schools program.

Examples

  • Mecklenburg County, NC
    The County's Wipe Out Waste Recycling Am​bassador Program offers recognition to businesses that reduce, reuse, and recycle waste in the workplace and purchase recycled products
  • Tompkins County, NY
    The County's ReBusiness Partners Program provides public recognition to local businesses that have a recycling program to effectively collect all mandatory recyclables and demonstrate activities in the areas of reduce, reuse, or rebuy
  • Castro Valley, CA
    The Sanitary District's 4R Business, 4R Planet Program offers recognition and a cash award to businesses that receive certification by the District for starting and maintaining at least one activity related to each of the 4R categories -- recycle, rot, reuse, reduce
  • Fort Collins, CO
    The City's ClimateWise is a voluntary business recognition program offering ratings of silver, gold, or platinum based on a point system for strategies implemented in the areas of energy, water, waste, transportation, and social responsibility; businesses can earn a waste badge by selecting from a menu of specific practices for reduction, reuse, and recycling

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63. Recognition and Certification Programs (national)
Sector: ICI

To encourage businesses and institutions to adopt and implement Zero Waste or high diversion goals and plans, help connect them to national recognition and/or certification programs.

Examples

  • Aurora, CO, San Antonio, TX and Johnson County, KS
    The Cities and County are "Endorsers" in EPA's Food Recovery Challenge, which provides opportunities for recognition to businesses and institutions that reduce food waste
  • Clifton, NJ
    The City is an "Endorser" in EPA's WasteWise, which provides opportunities for recognition to businesses and institutions that demonstrate waste reduction and sustainable materials management in their waste management processes
    Community Recycling Success Stories: Clifton, NJ

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64. C&D Policy Incentives - Adaptive Reuse
Sector: C&D projects

Provide incentives to developers, e.g., streamlined permit review, permit fee reductions, flexibility in parking requirements, to support "adaptive reuse" of older or historic buildings to new uses.

Examples

  • Los Angeles, CA
    The City's Adaptive Reuse Ordinance provides incentives to developers to re-develop existing buildings for new residential uses and streamlines the process they must follow to get projects approved
  • Portland, OR
    The City's Zoning Code includes special provisions designed to increase land use flexibility and redevelopment options for historic structures to encourage their renovation and rehabilitation.
    Summary of Portland Historic Preservation Zoning Incentives (Portland Bureau of Planning and Sustainability, Revised July 2011)

Resources

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65. Demolition Permit Publication
Sector: C&D projects

Require publication in the local newspaper of all building demolition permit applications to solicit salvage of reusable items by deconstruction firms.

Examples

  • Cotati, CA
    The City requires that any entity seeking to demolish a structure within the City publicly advertise the hours and dates that materials will be available for salvage and make such materials available for at least 10 days

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66. C&D Diversion Requirements
Sector: C&D projects

Adopt requirements for C&D recycling/reuse in a C&D or Green Building ordinance or building permit.

Examples

  • Palo Alto, CA
    The City's Green Building ordinance requires 80% of construction and demolition debris to be recycled for most projects
  • Portland, OR
    In July 2016, the City adopted an ordinance, effective October 2016, requiring that projects seeking a demolition permit for houses or duplexes built in 1916 or earlier or designated historic resources to fully deconstruct such structures; the City estimates the ordinance will divert 4,000 tons of materials for reuse annually
  • Cook County, IL
    The County adopted an ordinance, effective November 2012, requiring that 70% of demolition debris from commercial and residential structures (excluding garages and sheds) be recycled during the demolition process, with 5% of the residential structures being reused
  • Fitchburg, WI
    The City adopted an ordinance requiring 70% of construction material produced on site be recycled or reused for new commercial and multi-family building construction and demolition projects; the City also requires contractors to submit a preliminary and final Construction and Demolition Reuse/Recycling Plan
  • California jurisdictions with C&D ordinances
    The California Green Building Standards Code (CALGreen) effective January 2017 requires permitted new residential and non-residential building construction, demolition and certain additions and alteration projects to recycle and/or salvage for reuse a minimum 65% of the nonhazardous C&D debris generated during the project. See sections 4.408, 5.408, 301.1.1 and 301.2

Resources

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67. C&D Mandatory Source Separation
Sector: C&D projects

Require contractors to separate recyclable C&D debris from non-recyclable materials and sort the recyclables on site by staff or a service. Alternatively, require the recycled materials be hauled to a facility that sorts C&D materials.

Examples

  • San Francisco, CA
    The City's C&D ordinance requires that all source-separated C&D debris be taken to a facility that reuses or recycles those materials and that all mixed C&D debris be transported to a registered facility that achieves an overall minimum recycling rate of 65%; the City prohibits any C&D debris from being taken to the landfill or put in the garbage
  • Elk Grove, CA
    The City requires five types of C&D debris to be recycled, offering the option to source-separate the materials for reuse or recycling or send a mixed load to a certified C&D sorting facility
  • Orange County, NC
    The County adopted a Regulated Recyclable Material Ordinance that mandates source separation and recycling of scrap metal, clean wood waste, corrugated cardboard, and pellets

Resources

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68. C&D Policy Incentives – Recycling
Sector: C&D projects

Update Green Building Policy to provide incentives attractive to developers, e.g., higher development ratios, lower set-backs, or credits for use of materials made from recycled content or for on-site reuse and recycling.

Examples

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69. C&D Recycling/Reuse Guidance
Sector: C&D projects

Prepare and post on the web a how-to deconstruction and services guide.

Examples

Resources

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70. C&D Service Rate Incentives
Sector: C&D projects

Require C&D processing facility(ies) to provide financial incentives to increase recovery rates, e.g., lower tipping fees, pre-sorting discounts, coupons and/or expedited service.

Examples

  • San Jose, CA
    Zanker Road Landfill was required by its Solid Waste Facility Permit issued by the City to offer lower rates to generators for clean, source-separated materials to enable it to more easily recycle those materials; embracing the goals of this permit condition, Zanker implemented advanced technology systems at its C&D recycling facility to achieve high diversion rates, including a float tank and screening system to separate materials in mixed demolition debris loads
  • Del Norte County, CA
    Serving rural communities, the County's Transfer Station, which also serves as a resource recovery park, provides reduced rates for asphalt, concrete without steel, clean soil or sand, clean and rolled carpet, and untreated wood or lumber compared to mixed trash
    Del Norte County Transfer Station Rates (PDF)

Resources

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71. C&D Permit Incentives – Refundable Fee
Sector: C&D projects

Charge a deposit for permitted projects, refundable upon permittee demonstrating that a high percentage, e.g., 75%, of C&D debris has been delivered to a recovery facility.

Examples

  • Plano, TX
    The City collects a deposit, calculated on a cost per square footage basis, which is refundable in full or in part based on the C&D project's documented diversion rate
  • Atherton, CA
    The Town adopted an ordinance requiring that C&D project permit applicants submit a deposit of $50 per ton estimated to be recycled, refundable upon proof that no less than the required percentage of debris generated has been reused or recycled; the Town requires that 60% of waste tonnage from C&D projects be reused or recycled
  • San Jose, CA
    The City's C&D program requires that at least 75% of C&D waste generated be diverted for reuse or recycling; the City collects a deposit that is fully refundable with proper documentation that the C&D debris has been diverted to a certified waste diversion facility

Resources

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72. C&D Permit Incentives – Preference & Credits
Sector: C&D projects

Give preferential treatment and/or permit credits for projects that meet Green Building/Sustainable Building Product policies.

Examples

  • Chicago, IL
    The City's Green Permit Program provides expediting permitting for projects that earn LEED or Green Globe certification
  • Seattle, WA
    The City offers expedited permit review to projects that earn LEED Silver, Gold, or Platinum certification and recycle construction waste.

Resources

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73. Website Content – Recycling / Reuse Directory
Sector: Community

Create a searchable local or regional directory specific to sector and/or industry of how and where to recycle or drop off used consumer products.

Examples

Resources

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74. Website Content – Green Products & Services Directory
Sector: Community

Create a searchable local or regional directory of businesses that offer green products or services, including vendor contact information.

Examples

  • Minneapolis and Saint Paul, MN
    The cities partnered with other organizations to create the Twin Cities Green Product and Service Directory (PDF)
  • San Francisco, CA
    The City's Green Business Directory is part of a program to recognize and promote businesses that earn the City's Green Business Seal verifying compliance with strict environmental standards to reduce waste, prevent pollution, and conserve resources

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75. Social Marketing
Sector: Community

Develop a social marketing/behavior change marketing program to find the best means to motivate people to reduce, reuse, recycle and compost.

Examples

  • Vancouver, WA
    The City implemented a Zero Waste Challenge Social Marketing Campaign (PDF) (14 pp, 4.5MB) targeting residential behavior change
  • Oakland, San Francisco, San Jose, Sunnyvale, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA
    The cities and County participated in a ReThink Disposable Packaging Waste Source Reduction Pilot led by a non-profit organization, Clean Water Action, to engage local restaurants in reducing single-use disposable products and packaging
  • Redmond, WA
    The City's Refresh Your Recycling Program uses community-based social marketing principles to expand business recycling activity; since the program was established, over 200 businesses have received assistance, resulting in an estimated additional recycling of over 3,000 cubic yards
    Businesses Embrace Environmental Stewardship
  • Sacramento County, CA
    Through an EPA grant, the County led a public social media campaign and partnered with other local entities in a community-based marketing approach to support River-Friendly Landscaping, a holistic approach to landscaping practices that includes reducing yard waste and using compost or mulch

Resources

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76. Outreach & Education
Sector: Community

Promote best practices for source reduction or organize volunteer opportunities for residents to promote waste reduction, reuse, recycling and composting.

Examples

  • Sacramento County
    The County and a group of cities applied for a state grant to support a campaign to promote 1-lb refillable propane cylinders in place of disposables that create a hazardous waste problem when landfilled. Since the Refuel Your Fun campaign was initiated, 14 retail locations in Sacramento County are participating by either selling, refilling, and/or exchanging refillables; city and county campaign partners have conducted outreach to residents, e.g, in the form of press releases, events, and fact sheets
  • Tompkins County, NY
    The County partnered with Catalog Choice, a nonprofit organization based in Berkeley, to promote to its residents the option to reduce unwanted mail by signing up for this free mail preference service; over 5,000 Tompkins County residents signed up, saving 28,000 pounds of paper annually
  • Portland, OR
    The City's Resourceful PDX program was developed to give residents ideas and tools for reducing waste, taking action, and finding resources
  • Castro Valley, CA
    The Sanitary District assembled a Green Hearts Team of volunteers who help others compost, recycle, and beautify Castro Valley
  • Alameda County, CA
    The County promotes sheet mulching, a technique for removing lawns that involves use of a layered mulch system and biodegradable weed barrier and doesn't require vegetation to be hauled off-site
  • Los Angeles County, CA
    The County offers free Smart Gardening Workshops to residents, including instructions on the basic techniques of composting, worm composting, and grasscycling; the County's School Garden Program provides free materials and assistance, including composting demonstrations, for students and teachers to set up school gardens

Resources

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77. Healthy Soils - Landscapes
Sector: C&D projects, ICI, Residential

Require or offer incentives for use of compost to restore soil, e.g., through local stormwater ordinances or programs for retrofitting residential and commercial landscapes; support carbon farm projects.

Examples

  • Denver, CO
    In 2008, Denver Water adopted a rule affecting all newly constructed landscapes; prior to landscaping, the soil must be amended with compost at a rate of 4 cubic yards of compost per 1,000 square feet of permeable area, incorporated to a depth of 6 inches
  • Seattle, WA
    Seattle Public Utilities helped launch the Soils for Salmon initiative in 1999, which led Washington State to adopt stormwater requirements for post-construction use of compost as a soil amendment. Consistent with state requirements (PDF), the City requires that disturbed or compacted soils be amended with compost to a minimum depth of 8 inches for all new construction sites
    Seattle Permits Tip 531 on Post Construction Soil Management (PDF), Seattle Department of Construction and Inspections, 2009
  • Montgomery County, MD
    The County's voluntary Rainscapes Rewards Rebate Program offers rebates to residential and commercial property owners for installing stormwater reduction projects, including a conservation landscape (PDF); eligibility requirements specify that a conservation landscape use soil amended with 2 inches of compost and 3 inches of natural, un-dyed mulch

Resources

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78. Healthy Soils - Locally Grown Food
Sector: Community

Support the establishment of community gardens, urban agriculture, and farmers markets offering organic, locally-grown food, e.g., by enacting changes to local zoning ordinances.

Examples

  • Minneapolis, MN
    In 2012, the City amended its zoning code to expand urban agricultural uses in all zoning districts and currently operates a Garden Lease Program to lease vacant City-owned lots for community gardens, market gardens, and urban farms; the City's Homegrown Minneapolis initiative builds local partnerships to support a healthy, local food system with multiple City departments administering related programs
  • Kansas City, MO
    The City supports the reuse of brownfields for community gardens and urban agriculture by funding site environmental assessments through EPA brownfields grants; in 2010, the City amended its zoning code to define and allow crop agriculture and urban agriculture without requiring a permit, with some exceptions
    Good to Grow article, Cultivate Kansas City, 2014
  • Oakland, CA
    In 2014, the City updated its zoning regulations to remove permitting obstacles for urban farmers and gardeners in many parts of the City, including allowing community gardens and small crops less than 1 acre to operate without requiring a special permit and animal husbandry by a conditional use permit
  • Richmond, CA
    In 2011, the City published an Urban Agriculture Assessment which identified opportunities, constraints, policies, and other steps the City could take to expand urban agriculture activities; the assessment helped inform the addition of an Agricultural District and related best practices in amendments to the City's zoning code, adopted November 2016
  • San Jose, CA
    In 2012, the City amended its zoning ordinance to allow, without requiring a permit, Small Certified Farmers' Markets in most zoning districts provided they meet certain criteria
    Memorandum on Proposed Zoning Code Amendment for Certified Farmers' Markets (PDF), City of San Jose, 2012

Resources

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79. Repair/Reuse Workshops
Sector: Community

Sponsor or organize product repair workshops or reuse workshops with local service clubs.

Examples

  • Palo Alto, CA
    The Repair Café Palo Alto is a non-profit organization that hosts events for residents to bring broken things and receive help from a repair volunteer
  • Alameda County, CA
    Cycles of Change, a community-based bicycle education program, operates a mobile bike shop that hosts Bike Fix-a-thons at schools, community centers, parks, and community events
  • Chicago, IL
    Community Glue Workshop hosts repair clinics where volunteers help neighbors repair broken items and skill-sharing workshops at local establishments
  • Hennepin County, MN
    The County organizes Fix-it Clinics for residents for items such as small household appliances, clothing, electronics, mobile devices, and toys

Resources

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80. Market Development Opportunities Assessment
Sector: Community

Assess the state of existing local and regional markets for materials across the waste stream; study service voids for missed opportunities to recover commodities. Shape strategic action plans around the findings.

Examples

Resources

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81. Recycling Market Development Zone
Sector: Community

Launch/participate in a regional initiative to encourage businesses to use recycled materials in their manufacturing processes for new products; collaborate with local economic development staff to provide financial, siting, permit, feedstock and marketing assistance and incentives to businesses.

Examples

Resources

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82. Rural Recycling Marketing Cooperative
Sector: Community

Collaborate with neighboring small communities to jointly market recyclable materials to attract buyers and receive more competitive pricing from bulk volumes.

Examples

  • State of New Mexico
    The New Mexico Recycling Coalition hosts the R3 Coop, which pools materials from small, rural communities for bulk sale to end markets. The New Mexico Recycling Coalition is also developing "Hub and Spoke" recycling, enabling recyclables collected in small, rural communities to be delivered to processing centers in nearby, larger communities.
  • State of Texas
    The Cooperative Teamwork & Recycling Assistance is a non-profit organization that services 60 rural recycling cooperatives.

Resources

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83. Drop-Off Recyclables
Sector: Community

Partner with nonprofit agencies, e-Steward recyclers, or B-corporation certified recyclers to accept and/or establish locations in the community for drop-off of recyclable items, including those that contain toxics or are bulky and hard to handle.

Examples

  • Bethlehem, NY
    The Town provides 24/7 drop boxes for clothing, shoes and other textiles to residents, having partnered with a clothing recycling company to collect the materials; the Town actively participated in the Re-Clothe NY campaign, a public/private/non-profit partnership to raise awareness statewide about textile reuse and recovery
  • Durham, NC
    The City accepts electronic waste at no charge dropped off by residents at its transfer station; the City's Request For Proposals for an electronic waste contractor specified that the contractor be certified with and meet the requirements of the Responsible Recycling or e-Stewards certification program (see pg. 13)
  • Oakland, CA
    DR3, a subsidiary of St. Vincent de Paul Society, manages a recycling program for mattresses, foam cushions, and carpet padding

Resources

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84. Drop-Off Reusables
Sector: Community

Partner with nonprofit agencies and local retailers to accept and/or establish locations in the community for drop-off of reusable or refurnishable items, including those that are bulky and hard to handle.

Examples

  • Eugene, OR
    Eugene has a network of non-profit organizations that accept drop-off items for reuse or refurbishing.
    Advancing Reuse in Eugene
  • Olathe and Mission, KS
    Goodwill's Donation Express Centers provide an easy, quick, and convenient way to drop-off donations.
  • Multiple locations
    Habitat for Humanity "ReStores" are non-profit home improvement stores that accept donated new and gently used furniture, home accessories, building materials, and appliances for resale.

Resources

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85. Drop-Off Compostables
Sector: Community

Partner with nonprofit agencies and local retailers to accept and/or establish locations in the community for drop-off of compostable items, such as yard debris, non-reusable wood, food waste and pet waste.

Examples

  • Tompkins County, NY
    The County has established eight food waste drop-off locations in the community for residents, providing for free a compost caddy, liners, and transport container; in 2015, approximately 200 tons of food scraps and soiled paper were dropped off
  • New York, NY
    The City funds a number of food waste drop-off sites through its partnership with GrowNYC and NYC Compost Project partners. These drop-off sites are located at farmers markets, libraries, commuter hubs, and other highly-trafficked locations; there are currently 88 sites and the City intends to continue expanding the number of sites throughout all five boroughs
  • Duluth, MN
    Western Lake Superior Sanitation District, serving Duluth and surrounding communities, has six food waste drop-off sites for residents that also provide free compostable bags; the food waste is mixed with yard waste for composting at the District's compost facility and sold as "Green Garden Compost"
  • Boulder, CO
    The City and County sponsor a yard waste and wood waste drop-off center

Resources

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86. Drop-Off Miscellaneous
Sector: Community

Promote collection hubs in the community for hazardous products, medical waste and hard to recycle items, e.g., oil, antifreeze, paint, tires, batteries, pharmaceuticals, carpet. Encourage management of collected items by manufacturers or retailers.

Examples

  • Alameda County, CA
    The County provides information on household hazardous waste drop-off locations and drop-off events for residents
  • Central Vermont, VT
    The Central Vermont Solid Waste Management District, representing nineteen cities and towns, holds a number of Special Collection Events for residents each year for all types of materials
  • Chittenden County, VT
    The County schedules a yearly event in each town for residents to drop off household hazardous waste to a mobile unit, "The Rover", which delivers it to the County's Environmental Depot for proper disposal
  • New York, NY
    The City holds biannual SAFE Disposal Events for residents to drop off harmful household products, including Solvents, Automotive, Flammable, and Electronics

Resources

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87. Reuse Closet
Sector: Government, ICI

Encourage storing of unwanted office supplies for re-use by employees or staff and teachers.

Examples

  • San Francisco, CA
    The City maintains a Virtual Warehouse for City-owned surplus materials to facilitate reuse and recycling of the materials as an alternative to disposal
  • Decorah, IA
    Luther College maintains a reuse station for drop-off and pickup of used office supplies
    Office Supplies Resource Station

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88. Flea Markets, Garage Sales, and Reuse Swaps
Sector: Community

Promote local flea markets and garage sales for sale of reusable items and swaps for household goods, e.g., clothing, toys, etc.

Examples

  • Minneapolis, MN
    In 2013, the City adopted an ordinance to legalize outdoor flea markets in order to encourage reuse of vintage, antique, and other items; the ordinance requires flea markets to be licensed and comply with other requirements
  • Mountain View, CA
    The City organizes an annual city-wide garage sale and yard sale event, advertising it in local newspapers, websites, and a banner over a major boulevard; the City provides a map for residents to locate registered garage sales
  • Castro Valley, CA
    The Sanitary District promotes resident-led reuse swap events
  • New York, NY
    Through its DonateNYC site, the City provides information to residents on local flea markets, swap events, and where to donate or find second-hand goods
  • Prince Frederick, MD
    Calvert Library offers community swap events, e.g., for clothes, toys, baby equipment, decorations, etc.
  • Evanston, IL
    The City posts on its website information on annual spring and fall flea market events

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89. Swap Shed
Sector: Community

Develop or contract for free drop and take areas or sheds at existing centers including transfer stations, recycling centers, landfills and HHW facilities.

Examples

  • Larimer County, CO
    The publicly owned landfill has a "Drop N' Swap" for residents to drop off and pick up useable, low-toxicity household hazardous wastes
  • Del Norte County, CA
    Serving rural communities, the County's transfer station accepts various household hazardous products for free drop-off every day, including car batteries, household batteries, antifreeze, F.O.G., and paint; self-haul customers can collect free materials from an on-site reuse shed
  • Northampton, MA
    The City established the ReCenter at one of its transfer stations to serve as a free drop and swap of household items in good repair

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90. Reuse Center for Sale of Used Goods
Sector: Community, C&D projects

Develop or contract for reuse centers for sale of salvaged building materials and used household items.

Examples

  • Tompkins County, NY
    The County made a commitment to develop a Reuse Center as part of its 20-year solid waste management plan; Finger Lakes Reuse, a non-profit run community reuse warehouse, is an outgrowth of this vision
  • New Paltz, NY
    Through its Zero Waste initiative, the Town established a Reuse Center that accepts donations of craft supplies and building materials in usable condition for re-sale; the Town promotes de-construction and provides volunteer opportunities for residents
  • Monterey, CA
    The Monterey Regional Waste Management District, representing nine local governments, operates Last Chance Mercantile, an 8,000 square foot reuse center co-located at the Monterey Peninsula landfill and Materials Recovery Facility. The reuse center accepts donations of clothing, houseware, furniture, building materials, tools, sports equipment, etc. for re-sale and also includes stations for free drop-off of electronic waste
  • Missoula, MT
    Home Resource, a non-profit building materials reuse center, collects and sells reusable surplus building materials
  • Oakland, CA
    The East Bay Depot for Creative Reuse is a non-profit center that accepts donation of used items, e.g., arts and crafts and educational supplies, and sells them at low cost
  • Westmoreland County, PA
    American Architectural Salvage is operated by a non-profit agency that accepts donations of building materials and supplies for resale and reuse
  • Chicago, IL
    The ReBuilding Exchange is a non-profit organization that diverts building materials from landfills by reaching out to contractors to promote deconstruction and making materials accessible for reuse at its warehouse; The WasteShed is a creative reuse center that accepts donations of art, craft and school materials for repurposing and low cost re-sale
  • Hickory, NC
    ReSource Warehouse and Gallery is a non-profit, creative reuse center that accepts donations of items for artists and educators for low cost re-sale
  • Humboldt, CA
    Scrap Humboldt is a non-profit, creative reuse center that accepts donations of items for low cost re-sale and works with college students to design repair/reuse kits
  • Detroit, MI
    The Architectural Salvage Warehouse of Detroit is a non-profit organization that deconstructs buildings in Southeast Michigan and offers the materials for re-sale

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91. Reuse Depot / Goods Banks
Sector: Community

Develop or contract for Goods Banks of reusable items for donation to social services programs, teachers, artists and/or the public.

Examples

  • New York, NY
    The City's re-fashionNYC collects used clothing and other textiles from apartments and businesses for donation to the homeless and has collected over 10 million pounds of material since its inception; the City's Department of Cultural Affairs collects a wide variety of reusable materials and makes them available for free to nonprofit and civic organizations
    Materials for the Arts
  • Montgomery County, OH
    The Montgomery County Materials Reuse Facility collects and warehouses unwanted, yet usable, materials from individuals and businesses and redistributes them to local nonprofit organizations
  • Los Angeles, CA
    LA Shares, which began as a pilot program by the City, accepts donated items from the local business community for free redistribution to non-profit agencies and schools
  • Atlanta, GA
    Atlanta Community ToolBank is a non-profit organization that lends tools to local service groups to implement community improvement projects with volunteers
  • Columbus, OH
    Rebuilding Together Central Ohio is a non-profit organization that loans out tools to individuals and non-profit organizations

Resources

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92. Resource Recovery Park or Center
Sector: Residential, ICI

Develop or contract for a central facility at which reuse, recycling and compost processing is co-located with manufacturing and retail businesses.

Examples

  • Austin, TX
    The City is redeveloping its eco-industrial park into the Austin [RE]Manufacturing Hub which will co-locate recycling and reuse manufacturers
  • Phoenix, AZ
    As part of its Reimagine Phoenix initiative, the City has proposed a 50 acre Resource Innovation Park surrounding its 27th Avenue transfer station and materials recovery facility; the site will co-locate a composting facility with the RISN Incubator, an emerging technologies business incubator, and reuse manufacturers
  • Alachua County, FL
    The County's 2015 Business Growth and Economic Action Plan (PDF) includes developing an Eco-Industrial Park designed to host complimentary industries and entreprenurial companies processing or manufacturing products from recyclable and recovered materials in the regional waste stream

Resources

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93. Center for Hard to Recycle Materials
Sector: Residential, ICI

Develop or contract for facilities that accept materials that are hard to recycle for reuse, refurbishing and/or recycling.

Examples

  • Boulder County, CO
    The County developed a Center for Hard to Recycle Materials (CHaRM) to collect materials dropped off by the public that are not cost-effective to collect via curbside services
  • El Cerrito, CA
    The City's Recycling and Environmental Services Center accepts hard-to-recycle items, such as polystyrene foam, bubble wrap packaging, automobile batteries, used motor oil, pharmaceuticals and carpet, as well as electronic waste, plastic film, and scrap metal; the City also accepts at the Center donations of reuseable household materials and textiles which are collected by local non-profit organizations for re-sale

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94. Compost Processing
Sector: Residential, ICI

Develop or contract for local or regional compost processing facilities for yard debris and/or food waste.

Examples

  • San Diego, CA
    The City's Miramar Greenery, co-located at its landfill, accepts 10,000 tons per year of food scraps from businesses participating in the City's Commercial Food Waste Recycling Program; training provided by City staff, a requirement for businesses to participate, helps keep contamination levels of loads delivered to the City's compost processing facility to 1%
  • Prince George's County, MD
    In 2013, the County began a food waste composting pilot at its yard waste composting facility, processing food waste commingled with mulch and yard trimmings in covered, positively aerated heaps
    Food Scraps Composting at County Yard Trimmings Site, BioCycle, May 2015
  • Missoula, MT
    In 2016, the City purchased a privately-owned composting operation adjacent to its wastewater treatment plant that had been accepting biosolids from the plant; for its new Garden City Compost facility, the City intends to expand the organic feedstock to include residential food waste
  • Onondaga County, NY
    The Onondaga County Resource Recovery Agency has been composting food waste since 2007 at its Amboy Compost Facility and in 2015 processed over 3,000 tons of commercial and institutional food waste
    2015 Annual Report on Recyclables Recovered (PDF), OCRRA
  • Wellesley, MA
    The Town's 88-acre Recycling and Disposal Facility transfer station accepts yard and wood debris drop-off by residents and businesses

Resources

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95. Anaerobic Digestion
Sector: Residential, ICI

Develop or contract for local or regional anaerobic digestion facilities for processing food waste, Fats, Oil and Grease (FOG) and/or sewage sludge.

Examples

  • San Jose, CA
    Sited on a City-owned former landfill, the Zero Waste Energy Development Company's dry fermentation anaerobic digestion and composting facility is an outgrowth of the City's high diversion goal, exclusive franchise agreement, and negotiated contract for commercial organics processing
    High Solids Anaerobic Digestion + Composting in San Jose, BioCycle 2014
  • Oakland, CA
    The East Bay Municipal Utility District's wastewater treatment plant converts discarded food waste from restaurants and supermarkets into renewable energy; with the addition of a high-efficiency biogas-fueled turbine in 2012, the plant generates more power from biogas than it uses and the District sells the excess electricity
    Food Scraps Recycling, East Bay Municipal Utility District
    Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste (PDF) (final report prepared by East Bay Municipal Utility District for EPA), 2008
  • West Lafayette, IN
    The City renovated its wastewater treatment plant to convert FOG from restaurants and food scraps from Purdue University to produce renewable energy; a co-generation system uses methane gas from the digesters to generate electricity and heat, resulting in cost savings for the plant's operation
    Project Description, Purdue University Discovery Park
  • Sacramento County, CA
    In 2011, the County issued a Request for Proposals for energy conversion projects at its South Area Transfer Station which was no longer in service; the transfer station site now hosts CleanWorld's high-solid digestion facility that diverts 100 tons per day of food and yard waste and converts it to renewable Compressed Natural Gas
    Sacramento Food Waste Digester Fuels Collection Fleet, Biocycle 2013

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96. C&D Recovery Facility – Inerts
Sector: C&D projects, Govt

Develop or contract for local or regional C&D Recovery facilities to recover inert materials (e.g., rock, asphalt, concrete, bricks).

Examples

  • Fort Collins, CO
    The City operates a crushing facility that accepts concrete, asphalt, and clean dirt at no charge; material is dropped off from City operations, private contractors, and the public, and diverts from landfill over 100,000 tons per year, saving the City money in avoided landfill tipping fees and providing revenue from the sale of material for reuse. The City also implemented a Soil Recovery Project, which has reduced the amount of soil landfilled from municipal activities, e.g., water utility projects, by more than 16,600 cubic yards per year; the City invested in equipment and personnel to screen concrete, asphalt, and scrap metal from soil, resulting in a savings of $80,000 per year
  • Portland, ME
    Built upon a City-owned landfill for bulky yard waste and C&D debris, Riverside Recycling is a regional C&D processing facility operated under City contract; source-separated loads are incentivized through lower tipping fees relative to mixed loads

Resources

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97. C&D Recovery Facility – Organics
Sector: C&D projects

Develop or contract for local or regional C&D Recovery facilities to recover organic materials (e.g., wood).

Examples

  • Monterey, CA
    The Monterey Regional Waste Management District, representing nine local governments in the Monterey area, operates a Materials Recovery Facility; the facility offers a discounted rate for clean yard waste and source-separated wood. For mixed C&D debris loads, wood is manually and mechanically separated on a conveyor belt system; the end product is a high-quality mulch
  • Oxnard, CA
    In 2014 the City transitioned management and operation of the Del Norte Regional Recycling & Transfer Station (PDF) from a private company to the City in order to save costs and support achievement of a zero waste goal; the facility accepts C&D debris, including wood

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98. Pre-Disposal Residuals Treatment
Sector: Residential, ICI

Develop or contract for a facility to biologically pre-treat trash residuals before disposal to stabilize organic component.

Examples

  • Halifax, Nova Scotia
    The Otter Lake Waste Facility only landfills waste that first passes through a front end processor and waste stabilization facility that applies mechanical-biological treatment

Resources

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99. Pre-Disposal Salvage
Sector: Residential, ICI

Develop or contract for facilities or sorting lines to remove and recover reusable, recyclable and compostable materials from source-separated trash.

Examples

  • San Leandro, CA
    At the Davis Street Resource Recovery Complex, material collected from curbside programs is pre-screened and hand-sorted for contaminant removal prior to further processing
    Curbside Recycling
  • San Jose, CA
    Under contract to the City, Republic Service's Newby Island Resource Recovery Park has an organics sorting line. The facility also has a "fines screen" for wet organics that removes plastic film, food service containers, and other plastic and a "reducer" to size the material and liberate the organics from plastic bags
    Republic Services Material Recovery Facility, San Jose, Packaging-Gateway.com

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100. Product and Packaging Redesign & Outreach
Sector: ICI

Support evaluation and redesign of products and packaging to prevent waste; conduct or promote outreach campaigns to local businesses to reduce or eliminate non-reuseable packaging, transport containers, and serviceware from their processes and retail stores.

Examples

  • Alameda County, CA
    The County's UseReusables Campaign offers businesses educational resources, expert advice, and grants to help them switch to reuseable transport packaging; for example, the County successfully worked with Tesla Motors' electric vehicle manufacturing plant in Fremont, California to switch to reusable windshield racks, eliminating approximately 100 tons of cardboard waste per year
    Tesla Motors Success Story, Stopwaste.org
  • San Diego, CA
    In May 2015, the City supported the launch of the Ocean-Friendly Restaurants Campaign by Surfrider Foundation's San Diego County Chapter; restaurants can earn Ocean-Friendly Certification by following specific criteria to reduce disposable plastic waste and receive promotion by Surfrider to consumers via social media, website, emails, and community events
  • Austin, TX
    The City joined the Ellen MacArthur Foundation's Circular Economy 100 Government & Cities group, a knowledge exchange platform which, among other topics, promotes design of products for reuse and regenerative recovery at the end of their useful life
    UCL Circular Cities Hub

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See the examples and resources for measures 1-50 »