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Hazardous Waste

State Universal Waste Programs in the United States

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Why Are Universal Waste Regulations Different in Some States?

State Adoption

Like in most federal environmental legislation, EPA encourages states to develop and implement their own hazardous waste programs as an alternative to direct EPA implementation. State adoption of the universal waste rules is optional because the rules are less stringent than the previous requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). States can create different standards (except for batteries due to the Battery Act), but they have to be equivalent to the federal regulations (i.e., they must provide equivalent protection, cannot regulate fewer handlers, etc.).

States may adopt the entire universal waste program put into place via several rules or certain provisions of the universal waste program, which are:

  • General provisions,
  • Provisions for batteries, pesticides, mercury-containing equipment, and lamps (states do not have to include all of them), and
  • Provisions allowing the addition of new universal wastes in state.

The federal universal waste rules went into effect immediately upon the federal effective date in states and territories that are not authorized to implement their own RCRA program, including Iowa, Alaska, and Puerto Rico. EPA encourages states to adopt the 1995 universal wastes rule as well as subsequent federal universal wastes (e.g., lampsmercury-containing equipmentaerosol cans).

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State Additions

Additionally, U.S. states authorized for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) universal waste rulemaking petition process found at 40 CFR 260.23 may add additional universal wastes to the state's universal waste program. In order for a state to add waste to the universal waste program:

  • the waste must be generated by a wide variety of generators,
  • the waste cannot be exclusive to a specific industry, and
  • the waste must be hazardous.

Also, the state’s requirements for managing the waste must prevent releases to the environment and increase the likelihood that the waste be recycled or managed at a hazardous waste facility. Keep in mind that state-only universal waste is only regulated as universal waste in that state and other states that have added the same waste to their universal waste programs.

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Table With State Adoption and Authorization Information with Links to State Universal Waste Regulations

The map below shows the states that have adopted the 1995 universal waste final rule (shown in green), which states have been authorized by EPA to implement it (shown in light blue) and in which states EPA administers the universal waste program (shown in orange). New rules go into effect in a state when a state adopts them into state law. When EPA authorizes a state for a new rule, EPA reviews the new state regulations subsequent to adoption to ensure they are equally as stringent as, or more stringent than the federal regulations. EPA authorizes states through a final rule and can then enforce authorized state rules. See the State Authorization page for further information about the state authorization program. Find out about your state's universal waste program by clicking on the map below:

United States map showing states that have adopted the 1995 universal waste final rule

Below is a table with columns showing the name of each U.S. state, a link to each state's universal waste regulations (where possible), if the state adopted the 1995 universal waste final rule, and if the state is authorized by EPA to implement it.

The state name links to our Web page containing all state environmental agency websites so you can search within the state website for additional universal waste information. Many of the following links exit the site Exit

State Environmental Program State Universal Waste Regulations If Adopted the Rule If Authorized for the Rule
Alabama Regulations (PDF) Yes Yes
Alaska (uses Federal regulations) Administered by EPA Region 10
Arizona Regulations (32 pp, 672 K, About PDF)
R18-8-273
Yes Yes
Arkansas Regulations
Reg 23, Section 273
Yes Yes
California Regulations
Chapter 23
Yes Yes
Colorado Regulations (6 pp, 44 K, About PDF) Yes Yes
Connecticut Regulations
Section 22a-449(c)-113 (PDF)

Incorporated by reference and has modifications
Yes Yes
State Environmental Program State Universal Waste Regulations If Adopted the Rule If Authorized for the Rule
Delaware Regulations (PDF) Yes Yes
District of Columbia Regulations
20 DCMR Section 4273
Yes Yes
Florida 62-730.185
Regulations
Yes Yes
Georgia 391-3-11.18
Regulations
uses Federal Rule
Yes Yes
Guam Not applicable No No
Hawaii Regulations Yes Yes
Idaho 58.01.05-016
uses Federal Rule
Yes Yes
Illinois Regulations Yes Yes
State Environmental Program State's
Universal Waste Regulations
If Adopted the Rule If Authorized for the Rule
Indiana Regulations
[See also 329 IAC 3.1-16-1in Article 3.1 (PDF)]
Yes Yes
Iowa (uses Federal regulations) Administered by EPA Region 7
Kansas 28-31-15
Regulations (PDF)
Yes Yes
Kentucky

Regulations (PDF)(4 pp, 129 K, About PDF)

Guidance (PDF)(2 pp, 229 K, About PDF)

Yes Yes
Louisiana Regulations Yes Yes
Maine Regulations (PDF)
Chapter 850, Section 3A
Yes Yes
Maryland Regulations
COMAR 26.13.10.06 - 26.13.10.25
Yes Yes
State Environmental Program State's
Universal Waste Regulations
If Adopted the Rule If Authorized for the Rule
Massachusetts Regulations (PDF)
30.1000
Yes Yes
Michigan R 299.9228
Regulations (PDF)
Yes Yes
Minnesota Regulations
Minn.R.7045.1400
Yes Yes
Mississippi

Regulations (28 pp, 170 K, About PDF)
11 Miss. Admin. Code Pt. 3, Ch. 1.

Yes Yes
Missouri Regulations Yes No
Montana Regulations Yes Yes
Nebraska Ch. 25, Title 128
Nebraska Hazardous Waste pages
Yes Yes
State Environmental Program State's
Universal Waste Regulations
If Adopted the Rule If Authorized for the Rule
Nevada no link Yes Yes
New Hampshire Regulations Yes Yes
New Jersey Regulations (PDF)
Guidance
Yes No
New Mexico Regulations
20.4.1.1000
Using Federal Rule
Yes Yes
New York Regulations Yes Yes
North Carolina Regulations (PDF) Yes Yes
North Dakota Regulations (PDF)
33-24-05-701
similar to Federal Rule
Yes Yes
State Environmental Program State's
Universal Waste Regulations
If Adopted the Rule If Authorized for the Rule
Ohio 3745-273-01
Regulations
Yes Yes
Oklahoma 252:205-3-2
Regulations (PDF)
(19 pp, 87K)
Using Federal Rule
Yes Yes
Oregon Regulations Yes Yes
Pennsylvania Regulations Yes Yes
Puerto Rico (uses Federal regulations) Administered by EPA Region 2
Rhode Island Fact Sheet (PDF) Yes Yes
South Carolina Regulations (14 pp, 122 K, About PDF) Yes Yes
South Dakota Regulations
Chapter 74:28:33
uses Federal Rule
Yes Yes
State Environmental Program State's
Universal Waste Regulations
If Adopted the Rule If Authorized for the Rule
Tennessee Regulations Yes Yes
Texas Regulations
30 TAC 335
Yes Yes
U.S. Virgin Islands (uses Federal regulations) Administered by EPA Region 2
Utah Regulations Yes Yes
Vermont Regulations (PDF) Yes Yes
Virginia

Regulations
9 VAC 20-60-273

Yes Yes
Washington Regulations
173-303-573
Yes Yes
West Virginia uses Federal Rule Yes Yes
Wisconsin Regulations
Chapter NR 673
Yes Yes
Wyoming Uses Federal Rule Yes Yes

Notes about this table:

  • Adoptions/authorization status listed was last updated on October 30, 2020.
  • The linked regulations may not be the most current.
  • States do not have to include all of the federal universal wastes when the states adopt the rule. For example, Maine and Washington did not include pesticides and North Dakota did not include thermostats. The table below contains more detail about which states have adopted which universal wastes.

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Universal Wastes in Each State and State Additions

The universal waste regulations can vary between states and states can add different types of wastes. Below is a table with columns showing the name of each U.S. state, the five types of federal universal wastes, additional universal wastes the state has added to its program, and the regulatory citation for the state's universal waste program. An "X" marked in the columns Batteries, Pesticides, Mercury-Containing Equipment, Lamps, or Aerosol Cans indicates that the state universal waste program includes that federal universal waste. States may add additional requirements for specific waste streams. As a result, variations may be present between federal Universal Waste regulations and state regulations.

State Batteries Pesticides Mercury- Containing Equipment Lamps Aerosol Cans State Additions Regulatory Citation
Alabama X X X X     DIVISION 14 335-14-11
Alaska (uses Federal regulations) X X X X X    
Arizona X X X X X   R18-8-273
Arkansas X X X X   consumer electronic items; cathode ray tubes (CRTs) and other electronic wastes (excludes broken and crushed lamps/debris) Regulation 23, 273-1
California X     X thermostats; waste cathode ray tube materials; photovoltaic modules (solar panels) R-97-08
Colorado X X X X electronic devices and electronic components  6 CCR 1007-3 Part 273
Connecticut X X   X   thermostats; used electronics 22a-449(c)-100 through 119
State Batteries Pesticides Mercury Containing Equipment Lamps Aerosol Cans State Additions Regulatory Citation
Delaware X X X X X    Title 7, 1302, Part 273
District of Columbia X X X X      20-4273
Florida X X X X     62-730.185
Georgia X X X X     391-3-11-.18
Hawaii X X X X   electronic items 11-273.1, Hawaii Administrative Rules
Idaho X X X X     58.01.05.016
Illinois X X X X X   Part 733
State Batteries Pesticides Mercury Containing Equipment Lamps Aerosol Cans State Additions Regulatory Citation
Indiana X X X X X lamps-prohibition against intentionally breaking or crushing 329 IAC 3.1-16
Iowa (uses Federal regulations) X X X X X    
Kansas X X X X      28-31-273
Kentucky X X X X X   401 Kentucky Administrative Regulations (KAR) 39:080, Section 3
Louisiana X X X X   electronics; antifreeze Title 33 Part V Chaper 38
Maine X   X X   cathode ray tubes; totally enclosed, non leaking polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) ballast; architectural paint Chapter 850, Section 3A
Maryland X X X X   fluorescent light ballasts that contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) COMAR 26.13
State Batteries Pesticides Mercury Containing Equipment Lamps Aerosol Cans State Additions Regulatory Citation
Massachusetts X X X X     310 CMR 30.000
Michigan X X X X X antifreeze; consumer electronics; electric lamps; devices containing elemental mercury (including thermostats, switches, thermometers, manometers, barometers, anti-locking braking systems (ABS), gas flow regulators, hydrometers, blood pressure cuffs and various medical devices, etc); pharmaceuticals, including drugs for both human and veterinary use COMAR 26.13
Minnesota X X X X   dental amalgam being recycled; pretreated dental wastewater; compressed gas cylinders Minnesota Statutes, Chapters §18B and §115A; Minnesota Rules, Chapters 1509, 7001, and 7045
Mississippi X X X X     Title 11, Part 3, Chapter 1, Rule 1.21
Missouri X X X X     10 CSR 25-16.273
Montana X X X X   requirements for treatment of electric lamps ARM 17.53 SubChapter 13
Nebraska X X X X   electronic items Chapter 25 of Title 128
State Batteries Pesticides Mercury Containing Equipment Lamps Aerosol Cans State Additions Regulatory Citation
Nevada X X X X     Nev. Admin. Code § 444.8632
New Hampshire X X X X   cathode ray tubes; waste antifreeze Env-Hw 1100
New Jersey X X X X   oil-based finishes; consumer electronics N.J.A.C. 7:26 Subchapter 1
New Mexico X X X X X1   20.4.1.1001
New York X X X X     §374-3.1
North Carolina X X X X X   13A .0119
North Dakota X X X X      33-24-05-701
State Batteries Pesticides Mercury Containing Equipment Lamps Aerosol Cans State Additions Regulatory Citation
Ohio X X X X X1 antifreeze; paint and paint-related wastes OAC 3745 Chapter 273
Oklahoma X X X X     252:205
Oregon X X X X     340-113-0000
Pennsylvania X X X X X oil-based finishes; photographic solutions CHAPTER 266b
Rhode Island X X X X   thermostats; cathode ray tubes DEM OWM-HW01-07
South Carolina X X X X      61-79.273
South Dakota X X X X     74:28:33:01
State Batteries Pesticides Mercury Containing Equipment Lamps Aerosol Cans State Additions Regulatory Citation
Tennessee X X X X     1200-01-11-.12
Texas X X X X   mercury-containing equipment, including thermostats Title 30 Part1 Chapter 335 Sub Chapter H, 5§335.261
Utah X X X X X1 anti-freeze R315-273-1
Vermont X X X X   thermostats; PCB-containing fluorescent light ballasts; cathode ray tubes SUBCHAPTER 9
Virginia X X X X   Crushing of lamps may be allowed at the universal waste handler under certain circumstances 9VAC20-60-273.
Washington X   X X     WAC 173-303-573
West Virginia X X X X     §33-20-13
Wisconsin X X X X   thermostats NR 673
Wyoming X X X X     Ch. 14

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AlabamaAlaskaArizonaArkansasCaliforniaColoradoConnecticutDelawareWashington, DCFloridaGeorgiaHawaiiIdahoIllinoisIndianaIowaKansasKentuckyLouisianaMaineMarylandMassachussetsMichiganMinnesotaMississippiMissouriMontanaNebraskaNevadaNew HampshireNew JerseyNew MexicoNew YorkNorth CarolinaNorth DakotaOhioOklahomaOregonPennsylvaniaRhode IslandSouth CarolinaSouth DakotaTennesseeTexasUtahVermontVirginiaWashingtonWest VirginiaWisconsinWyomingGuamPuerto RicoVirgin IslandsAmerican SamoaNorthern Mariana Islands

1. States which adopted aerosol cans prior to federal rule being promulgated, state rule functionally equivalent to federal rule